Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia – Positive Symptoms & Negative Symptoms

front 1

Schizophrenia

What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Content of Thought?

back 1

  • Delusions
  • Religiosity
  • Paranoia
  • Magical Thinking

front 2

Schizophrenia

What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Form of Thought?

back 2

  • Associative looseness
  • Neologisms
  • Concrete
    thinking
  • Clang associations
  • Word Salad
  • Circumstantiality
  • Tangentiality
  • Mutism
  • Perseveration

front 3

Schizophrenia

What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Perception?

back 3

  • Hallucinations
  • Illusions

front 4

Schizophrenia

What are the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia related Sense of Self?

back 4

  • Echolalia
  • Echopraxia
  • Identification and
    imitation
  • Depersonalization

front 5

Schizophrenia

What are the negative symptoms of Schizophrenia related Affect?

back 5

  • Inappropriate affect
  • Bland/Flat affect
  • Apathy

front 6

Schizophrenia

What are the negative symptoms of Schizophrenia related Volition?

back 6

  • Inability to initiate goal-directed activity
  • Emotional
    Ambivalence
  • Deteriorated appearance

front 7

Schizophrenia

What are the negative symptoms of Schizophrenia related to
Integrated Functioning/Relationship to External World?

back 7

  • Impaired social interaction
  • Social isolation

front 8

Schizophrenia

What are the negative symptoms of Schizophrenia related too
Psychomotor Behavior?

back 8

  • Anergia
  • Wavy Flexibility
  • Posturing
  • Pacing and rocking

front 9

Schizophrenia

What are the negative symptoms of Schizophrenia related to
Associated Features?

back 9

  • Anhedonia
  • Regression

front 10

Schizophrenia

What are delusions and what are the (6) different types?

back 10

False personal beliefs that are inconsistent with person’s
intelligence or cultural background.

  • Delusions of Persecution – feels threatened & thinks
    others are out to harm them.
  • Delusions of grandeur –
    Exaggerated feeling of importance, power or knowledge.
  • Delusions of Reference – All events in the environment are
    referred by the psychotic person to themselves i.e. someone is
    trying to send me a message through the TV.
  • Delusion of
    Control Influence – Believes certain objects and persons have
    control over their behavior (I can only sleep when the TV is
    off).
  • Somatic Delusions – False idea about the functioning of
    their body i.e. 80 year old thinks their pregnant when their
    not.
  • Nihilistic Delusions – false idea that self, part of
    self or others in the world are nonexistent i.e. the world no longer
    exists.

front 11

What is Religiosity and Paranoia?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 11

  • Religiosity – excessive demonstration or obsession w/religious
    ideas & behavior. Schizophrenic patients may use religious ideas
    to provide rational meaning/structure to their behavior. i.e. –
    individual believes the voice they hear is God talking to
    them..
  • Paranoia – Extreme suspiciousness of others and
    actions/perceived intentions.
  • Both religiosity and paranoia
    are positive symptoms and fall under the content of thought
    category.

front 12

What is Magical Thinking and Associative Looseness?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 12

  • Magical Thinking – believes his or her thoughts or behaviors
    have control over specific situations or people, is common in
    children. i.e. father thinks if he scolds his child, their child
    will disappear.
  • Associative Looseness – Speech of ideas
    which shift from one unrelated subject to the other – individual is
    unaware that topics are unconnected. i.e. we wanted to drive the car
    but the airport took all the traffic.
  • Both Magical thinking
    is a positive symptom and is under the category of content of
    thinking. Whereas Associative looseness is positive falls under form
    of thought.

front 13

What is Neologisms and Concrete Thinking?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 13

  • Neologisms – patient invents new words that are meaningless to
    others but have symbolic meaning to the person i.e. I found his new
    frumperum cute.
  • Concrete thinking – A regression to an
    earlier level of cognitive development (Piaget’s Concrete Operations
    – age 7-11) , abstract thinking is difficult. Has difficulty
    explaining “It’s raining cats and dogs”
  • Both
    neologism and concrete thinking are positive symptoms and are under
    the category of form thought.

front 14

What is Clang Association and World Salad?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 14

  • Clang Association – Words are chosen based on sound/rhyming
    i.e. it’s very cold, I am cold and bold, the gold has been
    sold.
  • World Salad – group of words that are put together
    randomly- w/out any logical connection. i.e. Most forward action
    grows life double plays circle uniform.
  • Both clan
    association and world salad are positive symptoms and fall under the
    category of form of thought.

front 15

What is Circumstantiality and Tangentiality?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 15

  • Circumstantiality – person delays in reaching the point of
    communication due to unnecessary/tedious details. Point is usually
    reached when the interviewer to keep person on track.
  • Tangentiality – person never really gets to the point of
    communication – unrelated topics are introduced and focus of
    discussion is lost.
  • Circumstantiality and Tangentiality are
    both positive symptoms and fall under form of thought.

front 16

What is Mutism and Perseveration?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 16

  • Mutism – individual’s inability or refusal to speak
  • Perseveration – persistently repeats the same word or idea in
    response to different questions.
  • Both mutism and
    perseveration are positive symptoms and fall under the category of
    form of thought.

front 17

What is Hallucinations and Illusions?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 17

  • Hallucinations – false sensory perceptions not associated with
    real external stimuli – may involve 5 sense (Auditory, Visual,
    Tactile, Gustatory & Olfactory)
  • Illusions – are
    misperceptions or misinterpretations of real external stimuli
  • Both hallucinations and illusions are positive symptoms and fall
    under the category of perception.

front 18

What is Echolalia and Echoprazia?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 18

  • Echolalia – the repetition of words that the schizophrenic
    hears – this an attempt to identify w/person speaking.
  • Echopraxia – individual purposelessly imitate movements made by
    others.
  • Both echolalia and echopraxia are positive symptoms
    and fall under the category of sense of self.

front 19

What is Identification and Imitation?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 19

  • Identification and imitation – identification occurs on an
    unconscious level.
  • Imitation occurs on a conscious level
    (used as an ego mechanism) and reflects individuals confusion
    regarding self-identity. Due to difficulty in knowing their own
    boundaries their behavior takes on the form of what they see in
    another person.
  • Both are positive symptoms and fall under
    the category of sense of self.

front 20

What is Depersonalization?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 20

  • Unstable self-identity of an individual that leads to feelings
    of unreality i.e. client may feel extremities have changed in size,
    or see oneself from a distance.
  • Depersonalization is a
    positive symptom and falls under sense of self.

front 21

What is Inappropriate Affect and Bland and Flat Affect?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 21

  • Inappropriate affect – when individual’s emotional tone is
    incongruent w/circumstances i.e. woman laughs when told of the death
    of a parent.
  • Bland/Flat Affect – Described as such when
    emotional tone is very weak – individual may appear void of
    emotional tone or overt expression of feelings.
  • Both
    inappropriate affect and bland affect are negative symptoms and fall
    under the category of affect.

front 22

What is Apathy and Emotional Ambivalence?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 22

  • Apathy – An indifference or disinterest in the environment.
    Bland or flat affect is a manifestation of the emotional
    apathy.
  • Emotional Ambivalence – coexistence of opposite
    emotions toward the same object, person, or situation. These may
    interfere w/ person’s ability to make even a very simple decision
    (i.e. whether to drink juice or milk) or in fulfilling a
    relationship.
  • Both apathy and emotional ambivalence are
    negative symptoms. Apathy falls under the category of sense of self,
    and Emotional Ambivalence falls under the category Volition.

front 23

What is Deteriorated Appearance and Impaired social interaction?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 23

  • Deteriorated Appearance – Personal grooming and self-care
    activities may be neglected. Client may appear disheveled and untidy
    and may need to be reminded of the need for personal hygiene.
  • Impaired Social Interaction – Clinging and intruding on the
    personal space of others, exhibiting behaviors that are not socially
    or culturally acceptable.
  • Both Deteriorated Appearance and
    Impaired Social Interaction are negative symptoms. DA falls under
    the category of Volition, while Impaired Social Interaction falls
    under the category of interpersonal functioning/relationship to
    external world.

front 24

What is Social Isolation and Anergia?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 24

  • Social Isolation – Focus inward on themselves to the exclusion
    of the external environment.
  • Anergia – Deficiency of energy
    to carry out activities of daily living or to interact with
    others.
  • Both Social Isolation and Anergia are negative
    symptoms and social isolation falls under Interpersonal functioning
    and relationship to external world.

front 25

What is Waxy Flexibility and Posturing?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 25

  • Waxy Flexibility – Allows body parts to be placed in bizarre or
    uncomfortable positions. One placed in positiong, the arm, leg, or
    head remains in that position for long periods regardless of how
    uncomfortable it is for client. I.e. nurse positions arm in outward
    position to take BP, when cuff is removed client maintains arm in
    same position.
  • Posturing – Manifested by voluntary
    assumption of inappropriate or bizarre postures.
  • Both Waxy
    Flexibility and Posturing are negative symptoms and fall under the
    category of Psychomotor Behavior.

front 26

What is Pacing and Rocking and Anhedonia?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 26

  • Pacing and Rocking – slow, rhythmic, backward and forward
    swaying of trunk from hips usually while sitting.
  • Anhedonia
    – inability to experience pleasure – compels client to commit
    suicide.
  • Both Pacing and Rocking are negative symptom. P
    & R falls under psychomotor behaviors while anhedonia falls
    under associated features.

front 27

What is Regression?

Are they positive or negative symptoms? What category are they?

back 27

  • Regression – retreating to earlier level of development. Is a
    primary defense mechanism and a dysfunctional attempt to reduce
    anxiety.
  • Regression is negative symptom and falls under the
    category of Associated Features.

front 28

5 types of Hallucinations

back 28

  • Auditory
  • Visual
  • Tactile
  • Gustatory
  • Olfactory

front 29

Auditory Hallucination

back 29

  • False perceptions of sound and commonly come in the form of
    voices. Other sounds include clicks, rushing noises, music and other
    noises.
  • Command hallucinations may place individuals or
    others in a dangerous situation – voices that command individual to
    self-harm or others.
  • Most common type of hallucination

front 30

Visual Hallucination

back 30

  • False visual perceptions and consist of formed images i.e.
    people, unformed images or flashes of light

front 31

Tactile Hallucination

back 31

  • Are false perceptions of sense of touch – often feeling
    something on skin or under skin, crawling under skin.

front 32

Olfactory Hallucination

back 32

  • False perceptions of sense of smell.

front 33

Gustatory Hallucination

back 33

  • False perception of taste – unpleasant tastes.

e 5 cards per page 6 cards per page –>

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Update

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