Patented- HIV / AIDS Mycoplasma Weaponised, US Army

WRITTEN TESTIMONY OF

Dr. Garth L. Nicolson

COMMITTEE ON VETERANS’ AFFAIRS

Subcommittee on Health

UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES

January 24, 2002

__________________________________________________________________________________

Dr. Garth Nicolson is currently the President, Chief Scientific Officer and Research Professor at the Institute for Molecular

Medicine in Huntington Beach, California. He was formally the David Bruton Jr. Chair in Cancer Research, Professor and

Chairman at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, and Professor of Internal Medicine and

Professor of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston. He was also

Adjunct Professor of Comparative Medicine at Texas A & M University. Among the most cited scientists in the world,

having published over 520 medical and scientific papers, edited 14 books, served on the Editorial Boards of 20 medical and

scientific journals, including the Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, and currently serving as Editor of two (Clinical &

Experimental Metastasis and the Journal of Cellular Biochemistry), Professor Nicolson has held numerous peer-reviewed

research grants. He is a recipient of the Burroughs Wellcome Medal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Stephen Paget

Award of the Metastasis Research Society and the U. S. National Cancer Institute Outstanding Investigator Award.

__________________________________________________________________________________

The most important question that this subcommittee must ask is whether the United States military health system failed in

its important mission of Force Protection before, during and after the Gulf War. I believe strongly that it did, and the

reason for this failure must be determined in order to better treat the chronic illnesses displayed by over 100,000 U.S.

veterans of the Gulf War, including in some cases their immediate family members [1], and to prevent history from

repeating itself in future deployments.

First, there is the issue of the initial denial the Gulf War veterans were ill in numbers more than expected for a deployed

population of approximately 600,000 men and women. This has now been conclusively shown, and the data indicate that

there are much higher prevalence rates of Gulf War Illnesses (GWI) in deployed than in non-deployed forces [2-4]. Case

control studies of Gulf War veterans showed higher symptom prevalence in deployed than in non-deployed personnel from

the same units [3,4]. For certain signs and symptoms, this difference was dramatic (some over 13-times greater in

deployed than in the non-deployed group [3]). Steele [4] showed that in three studies, Gulf War-deployed forces had

excess rates of GWI symptom patterns, indicating beyond a doubt that GWI is associated with deployment to the Gulf War.

Second, since it is now clear that the Gulf War produced delayed casualties beyond those expected, it is important to

determine what caused these casualties so that measures can be employed to prevent this from occurring in future conflicts.

An important corollary of this is that illnesses that occur in deployed personnel must be prevented from spreading to

civilians [1]. We believe that GWI is caused by accumulated toxic insults (chemical, biological and in some cases

radiological [5-8]) that result in chronic illnesses with relatively nonspecific signs and symptoms [5,9,10]. Unfortunately,

some of these illnesses are apparently transmittable and can be passed to family members [1] and possibly to the general

public.

POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND OBTAINING A DIAGNOSIS OF GWI

For years the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans’ affairs (DVA) promoted the notion that Post-Traumatic Stress

Disorder (PTSD) was a major factor in GWI [11]. Most researchers doubt that stress is a major cause of GWI [6-9], and it

certainly does not explain after the war why some immediate family members presented with GWI signs and symptoms

[1,6-8]. Psychiatrists who have studied GWI do not believe that most GWI is explainable as PTSD [12], and researchers

studying GWI find that it differs from PTSD, depression, somatoform disorder and malingering [8,13]. Although most

GWI patients do not appear to have PTSD, they are often placed in this diagnosis category by DoD and DVA physicians.

GWI can be diagnosed within ICD-10-coded diagnosis categories, such as fatiguing illness (G93.3), but they often receive

a diagnosis of ‘unknown illness.’ This, unfortunately, results in their receiving reduced disability assessments and benefits

and essentially little or no effective treatments because they don’t fit within the military’s or DVA’s diagnosis systems. In

addition, many active-duty members of the Armed Forces are hesitant to admit that they have GWI, because they feel

strongly that it will hurt their careers or result in their being medically discharged. Officers that we have assisted

eventually retired or resigned their commissions because of imposed limits to their careers [14].

Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

In the absence of contrary laboratory findings, some physicians feel that GWI is a somatoform disorder caused by stress,

instead of organic or medical problems that can be treated with medicines or treatments not used for PTSD or other

somatoform disorders [14]. The evidence offered as proof that stress or PTSD is the source of most GWI is the assumption

that veterans were in a stressful environment during the Gulf War [14,15]. However, most GWI patients feel that PTSD is

not an accurate diagnosis of their illnesses [14,15], and testimony to the House questions the notion that stress is the major

cause of GWI [16]. The GAO has concluded that while stress can induce some physical illness, it is not established as a

major cause of GWI [17]. Although stress can exacerbate chronic illnesses and suppress immune systems, most officers

that we interviewed indicated that the Gulf War was not a particularly stressful war, and they strongly disagreed that stress

was the origin of their illnesses [18]. However, in the absence of physical or laboratory tests that can identify possible

origins of GWI, many physicians accept that stress is the cause [14,15,18]. The arthralgias, fatigue, memory loss, rashes

and diarrhea found in GWI patients are nonspecific and often apparently lack a physical cause [19], but this may simply be

the result of inadequate workup and lack of availability of routine tests that could define the underlying organic cause [6-

8].

We have been trying for years to get the DoD and DVA to acknowledge that different exposures can result in quite

different illnesses, even though signs and symptoms profiles may overlap [14,18]. Illness clusters similar to GWI can be

found in non-Gulf War veterans deployed to Bosnia [2]. Although such epidemiological analyses have been criticized on

the basis of self-reporting and self-selection [19], it remains important to characterize signs and symptoms and identify

exposures of Gulf War veterans in order to find effective treatments for specific subsets of GWI patients [14,15,18]. Our

contention is that GWI patients that suffer from chemical, biological or radiological exposures should receive different

treatments based on their exposures [6-8].

Patients with GWI can have 20-40 or more chronic signs and symptoms [1-8]. Civilian patients with similar signs and

symptoms are usually diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS) or Multiple

Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome (MCS) [6-8]. Although clear-cut laboratory tests on GWI, CFS and FMS are not yet

available, some tests that have been used in recent years for GWI are not consistent with a psychiatric origin for GWI [20-

26]. These results argue against a purely somatoform disorder. Recently the DVA has agreed to accept diagnoses of CFS

and FMS for Gulf War veterans without confirmation of the origin of illness. This is a step in the right direction toward

rectifying the problem of diagnosis of ‘illness of unknown origin’ or somatoform disorder.

CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL & RADIOLOGICAL EXPOSURES DURING THE GULF WAR

During the Gulf War personnel may have been exposed to chemical, biological and/or radiological substances that could be

among the underlying causes of their illnesses [6-8]. Gulf War veterans were exposed to a variety of chemicals, including

insecticides, such as the insect repellent N,N-dimethyl-m-toluamide, the insecticide permethrin and other

organophosphates, fumes and smoke from burning oil wells, the anti-nerve agent pyridostigmine bromide, solvents used to

clean equipment and a variety of other chemicals, including in some cases, possible exposures to low levels of Chemical

Warfare (CW) agents [6-8]. Some CW exposure may have occurred because of destruction of CW stores in factories and

storage bunkers during and after the war as well as possible offensive use of CW agents [27]. Although some feel that

there was no credible evidence for CW exposure [19], many veterans have been notified by the DoD of possible CW

exposures. Exposures to mixtures of toxic chemicals can result in chronic illnesses, even if the exposures were at low-

levels [20,21,28,29]. Such exposures can cause a wide variety of signs and symptoms, including chronic neurotoxicity and

immune supression. Combinations of pyridostigmine bromide, N,N-dimethyl-m-toluamide and permethrin produce

neurotoxicity, diarrhea, salivation, shortness of breath, locomotor dysfunctions, tremors, and other impairments in healthy

adult hens [28]. Although low levels of individual organophosphate chemicals may not cause signs and symptoms in

exposed, non-deployed civilian workers [30], this does not negate a causal role of multiple chemical exposures in causing

chronic illnesses such as GWI. Organophosphate-Induced Delayed Neurotoxicity (OPIDN) [31] is an example of chronic

illness that may be caused by multiple, low level chemical exposures (Figure 1). Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome

(MCS) has also been proposed to result from multiple low level chemical exposures [32]. These syndromes can present

with many of the signs and symptoms found in GWI patients, and many GWI cases may eventually be explained by

complex chemical exposures.

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

Hypothesis on Origin of Gulf War Illnesses

Chemical, Radiological & Biological MaterialsMultiple Exposures to Various

Chemical

Exposures Biological Exposures

Chronic Infections

Prof. G. L. Nicolson The Institute for Molecular Medicine

MCS

Predisposition

[Immune System]

[Detox System]

FMS/CFS/GWI/RA/etc.

3

1

4

OPIDN

Genetic

Acute Viral/Bacterial Infection

Bacteria

Viruses

Fungi Chronic Illnesses

V

a

c

c

i

n

e

s

2

Figure 1. Hypothesis on how multiple toxic exposures, including multiple vaccines (2), chemical (3),

radiological and biological (4) exposures, may have resulted in GWI in predisposed, susceptible individuals (1)

[modified from Nicolson et al., ref. 8].

__________________________________________________________________________________

In chemically exposed GWI patients, memory loss, headaches, cognitive problems, severe depression, loss of

concentration, vision and balance problems and chemical sensitivities, among others, typify the types of signs and

symptoms characteristic of organophosphate exposures. Arguments have been advanced by former military physicians that

such exposures do not explain GWI, or that they may only be useful for a small subset of GWI patients [19]. These

arguments for the most part are based on the effects of single agent exposures, not the multiple, complex exposures that

were encountered by Gulf War veterans [33]. The onset of signs and symptoms of GWI for most patients was between six

months and two years or more after the end of the war. Such slow onset of clinical signs and symptoms in chemically

exposed individuals is not unusual for OPIDN [34]. Since low-level exposure to organophosphates was common in U.S.

veterans, the appearance of delayed, chronic signs and symptoms similar to OPIDN could have been caused by multiple

low-level exposures to pesticides, nerve agents, anti-nerve agents and/or other organophosphates, especially in certain

subsets of GWI patients. Alternatively, chemically-exposed patients are known to be more susceptible to opportunistic

infections, and the combination of chemical and biological exposures may be important for a large subset of GWI patients.

In addition to chemical exposures, personnel were exposed to burning oil well fires and raw petroleum as well as fine,

blowing sand. The small size of sand particles (much less than 0.1 mm) and the relatively constant winds in the region

probably resulted in some sand inhalation. The presence of small sand particles deep in the lungs can produce a pulmonary

inflammatory disorder that can progress to pneumonitis or Al-Eskan Disease [35]. Al-Eskan disease, characterized by

reactive airways, usually presents as a pneumonitis that can eventually progress to pulmonary fibrosis, and possibly

immunosuppression followed by opportunistic infections. Although it is doubtful that many GWI patients have Al-Eskan

Disease, the presence of silica-induced immune suppression in some soldiers could have contributed to persisting

opportunistic infections in these patients.

Radiological exposures occurred in some personnel, probably a small number overall, during the Gulf War. Depleted

uranium (DU) was used extensively in the Gulf War, and it remains in the environment as a contaminant. When a DU

penetrator hits an armored target, it ignites, and between 10% and 70% of the shell aerosolizes, forming uranium oxide

particles [36]. The particles that form are usually small (less than 5 μm in diameter) and due to their high density settle

quickly onto vehicles, bunkers and the surrounding sand, where they can be easily inhaled, ingested or re-aerosolized.

Following contamination, the organs where DU can be found include the lungs and regional lymph nodes, kidney and

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

bone. However, the Armed Forces Radiological Research Institute (AFRRI) also found DU in blood, liver, spleen and

brain of rats injected with DU pellets [37]. Studies on DU carriage should be initiated as soon as possible to determine the

prevalence of contamination and extent of body stores of uranium and other radioactive heavy metals. Procedures have

been developed for analysis of DU metal fragments [38] and DU in urine [39]. However, urine testing does not detect

uranium in all body sites [37]. So far, analysis of DU-contaminated Gulf War veterans has not shown them to have severe

signs and symptoms of GWI [39], but few Gulf War veterans have been studied for DU contamination. As with chemical

exposures, radiological exposures result in immune suppression can contribute to an increased susceptibility to

opportunistic infections.

BIOLOGICAL EXPOSURES AND GWI

The variable incubation times, ranging from months to years after presumed exposure, the cyclic nature of the relapsing

fevers and other signs and symptoms, and the types of signs and symptoms of GWI are consistent with diseases caused by

combinations of biological and/or chemical or radiological agents (Figure 1) [6-8]. System-wide or systemic chemical

insults and/or chronic infections that can penetrate various tissues and organs, including the Central and Peripheral

Nervous Systems, are important in GWI [6-8]. When chronic infections occur, they can cause most if not all of the

complex signs and symptoms seen in CFS, FMS and GWI, including immune dysfunction and changes in blood chemistry

[24,25]. Changes in environmental responses as well as increased titers to various endogenous viruses that are commonly

expressed in these patients have been seen in CFS, FMS and GWI. Few infections can produce the complex chronic signs

and symptoms found in these patients; however, the types of infection caused by Mycoplasma and Brucella species that

have been found in GWI patients, can cause the complex signs and symptoms found in GWI [reviews: 23,40,41]. These

microorganisms are now considered important emerging pathogens in causing chronic diseases as well as being important

cofactors in some illnesses, including AIDS and other immune dysfunctional conditions [23,40,41].

Evidence for infectious agents has been found in GWI patients’ urine [5] and blood [1,23,42-44]. We [1,42,43] and others

[44] have found chronic pathogenic bacterial infections, such as Mycoplasma and Brucella infections, in a large subset of

GWI patients. In studies of over 1,500 U. S. and British veterans with GWI, approximately 40-50% of GWI patients have

PCR evidence of such infections, compared to 6-9% in the non-deployed, healthy population [review: 23]. This has been

confirmed in a large study of 1,600 veterans at over 30 DVA and DoD medical centers (VA Cooperative Clinical Study

Program #475). Historically, mycoplasmal infections were thought to produce relatively mild diseases limited to particular

tissues or organs, such as urinary tract or respiratory system [23,40,41]. However, the mycoplasmas detected in GWI

patients with molecular techniques are highly virulent, colonize a wide variety of organs and tissues, and are difficult to

treat [23,45,46]. The mycoplasma most commonly detected in GWI, Mycoplasma fermentans (found in >80% of those

GWI patients positive for any mycoplasma), is a slow-growing bacteria found inside cells in tissues. It is unlikely that this

type of infection will result in a strong antibody response, which may explain the DoD’s lack of serologic evidence for

these types of intracellular infections [47]. When civilian patients with CSF or FMS were similarly examined for systemic

mycoplasmal infections 50-60% of these patients were positive, indicating another link between these disorders and GWI

[23]. In contrast to GWI, however, several species of mycoplasmas other than M. fermentans were found in higher

percentages of CSF/ME and FMS patients [48,49].

SOME GWI INFECTIONS CAN SPREAD TO IMMEDIATE FAMILY MEMBERS

Recently we have documented the spread of GWI infections to immediate family members [1]. According to one U. S.

Senate study [50], GWI has spread to family members, and it is likely that it has also spread in the workplace [18].

Although the official position of the DoD/DVA is that family members have not contracted GWI, these studies [1,50]

indicate that at least a subset of GWI patients have a transmittable illness caused by a chronic infection. Laboratory tests

revealed that symptomatic GWI family members have the same chronic infections [1] that have been found in ~40% of the

ill veterans [42-44]. We examined military families (149 patients; 42 veterans, 40 spouses, 32 other relatives and 35

children) with at least one family complaint of illness) selected from a group of 110 veterans with GWI who tested positive

(~41% overall) for mycoplasmal infections [1]. Consistent with previous results, over 80% of GWI patients who were

positive for blood mycoplasmal infections had only one Mycoplasma species, M. fermentans. In healthy control subjects

the incidence of mycoplasmal infection was 7%, several mycoplasma species were found, and none of these subjects were

found to have multiple mycoplasmal species (significant difference between patients and control subjects, P<0.001). In

107 family members of mycoplasma-positive GWI patients, there were 57 patients (53%) that had essentially the same

signs and symptoms as the veterans and were diagnosed with CFS or FMS. Most of these patients (70.2%) also had

mycoplasmal infections compared to non-symptomatic family members (significant difference between symptomatic

family members and non-symptomatic family members, P<0.001). The most common species found in CFS patients in the

same families as M. fermentans-positive GWI patients was also M. fermentans. Thus the most likely explanation is that

certain subsets of GWI patients can transmit their illness and airborne M. fermentans infections to immediate family

members who then present with CFS or FMS [1].

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES AND INFECTIONS IN GULF WAR VETERANS

As chronic illnesses like GWI, CFS and FMS progress, there are a number of accompanying clinical problems, particularly

autoimmune signs/symptoms, such as those seen in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS or Lew

Gehrig’s Disease), Lupus, Graves’ Disease, Rheumatoid Arthritis and other complex autoimmune diseases. In part, this

might be explained by intracellular microorganisms, such as mycoplasmal infections that can penetrate into nerve cells,

synovial cells and other cell types [40,41]. The autoimmune signs and symptoms may be caused when intracellular

pathogens, such as mycoplasmas, escape from cellular compartments and stimulate the host’s immune system.

Microorganisms like mycoplasmas can incorporate into their own structures pieces of host cell membranes that contain

important host membrane antigens that can trigger autoimmune responses or their surface antigens may be similar to

normal cell surface antigens. Thus patients with such infections may have unusual autoimmune signs and symptoms.

An example of this is Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset, idopathic, progressive degenerative disease

affecting both central and peripheral motor neurons. ALS is present at higher incidence rates in Gulf War veterans than

expected. Patients with ALS show gradual progressive weakness and paralysis of muscles due to destruction of upper

motor neurons in the motor cortex and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord, ultimately resulting in death,

usually by respiratory failure [51]. We have recently investigated the presence of systemic mycoplasmal infections in the

blood of Gulf War veterans and civilians with ALS [52]. Almost all ALS patients (~83% overall) show evidence of

system-wide mycoplasmal infections, including 100% of Gulf War veterans with ALS. All Gulf War veterans with ALS

were positive for M. fermentans, except one that was positive for M. genitalium. In contrast, the 22/28 civilians with

detectable mycoplasmal infections had M. fermentans as well as other Mycoplasama species in their blood, and two of the

civilian ALS patients had multiple mycoplasma species [52]. Of the few control patients that were positive, only two

patients (2.8%) were positive for M. fermentans (significant difference between ALS patients and control subjects,

P<0.001). The results support the suggestion that infectious agents may play a role in the pathogenesis and/or progression

of ALS, or alternatively ALS patients are extremely susceptible to systemic mycoplasmal infections [52]. In the GWI

patients mycoplasmal infections may have increased their susceptibility to ALS, which may explain the recent VA studies

showing that there is an increased risk of ALS in Gulf War veterans.

SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF INFECTIONS IN GWI PATIENTS

Treatment of GWI can be complex and dependent on the types of exposures found in GWI patients. We have found that

mycoplasmal infections in GWI, CFS, FMS and RA can be successfully treated with multiple courses of specific

antibiotics, such as doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, clarithromycin or minocycline [45,46,53-55], along with

other nutritional recommendations. Multiple treatment cycles are required, and patients relapse often after the first few

cycles, but subsequent relapses are milder and most patients eventually recover [42,43]. GWI patients who recovered from

their illness after several (3-7) 6-week cycles of antibiotic therapy were retested for mycoplasmal infection and were found

to have reverted to a mycoplasma-negative phenotype [42,43]. The therapy takes a long time because the slow-growing

microorganisms are localized deep inside cells in tissues where it is more difficult to achieve proper antibiotic therapeutic

concentrations. Although anti-inflammatory drugs can alleviate some of the signs and symptoms of GWI, they quickly

return after discontinuing drug use. If the effect was due to an anti-inflammatory action of the antibiotics, then the

antibiotics would have to be continuously applied and they would be expected to eliminate only some of the signs and

symptoms of GWI. In addition, not all antibiotics, even those that have anti-inflammatory effects, appear to work. Only

the types of antibiotics that are known to be effective against mycoplasmas are effective; some have no effect at all, and

some antibiotics make the condition worse. Thus the antibiotic therapy does not appear to be a placebo effect, because

only a few types of antibiotics are effective and some, like penicillin, make the condition worse. We also believe that this

type of infection is immune-suppressing and can lead to other opportunistic infections by viruses and other microorganisms

or increases in endogenous virus titers. The true percentage of mycoplasma-positive GWI patients overall is likely to be

somewhat lower than found in our studies (41-45%) [1,42,43] and those published by others (~50%) [44]. This is

reasonable, since GWI patients that have come to us are probably more advanced patients with more progressed disease

than the average GWI patient. Our diagnostic results have been confirmed in a large study DVA/DoD study (~40%

positive for mycoplasmal infections, VA Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475). This DVA study is a controlled

clinical trial that will test the usefulness of antibiotic treatment of mycoplasma-positive GWI patients. This clinical trial is

based completely on our research and publications on the diagnosis and treatment of chronic infections in GWI patients

[42,43,53-55]. This clinical trial is complete but the treatment results have not yet been analyzed. There is a major

concern that the DoD/DVA will not be forthcoming about this trial. We have also found Brucella infections in GWI

patients but we have not examined enough patients to establish a prevalence rate among veterans with GWI.

MULTIPLE VACCINES GIVEN DURING DEPLOYMENT AND GWI

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

A possible source for immune disturbances and chronic infections found in GWI patients is the multiple vaccines that were

administered close together around the time of deployment to the Gulf War. Unwin et al. [8] and Cherry et al. [56] found a

strong association between GWI and the multiple vaccines that were administered to British Gulf War veterans. There is

an association of the anthrax vaccine and GWI symptoms in British and Canadian veterans [2,57]. Steele [4] found a three-

fold increased incidence of GWI in nondeployed veterans from Kansas who had been vaccinated in preparation for

deployment, compared to non-deployed, non-vaccinated veterans. And Mahan et al. [58] found a two-fold increased

incidence of GWI symptoms in U.S. veterans who recalled they had received anthrax vaccinations at the time of the Gulf

War, versus those who thought they had not. These studies associate GWI with the multiple vaccines given during

deployment, and they may explain the high prevalence rates of chronic infections in GWI patients [59,60].

Signs and symptoms similar if not identical to GWI have been found in personnel who recently received the anthrax

vaccine [59,60]. On some military bases this has resulted in chronic illnesses in as many as 7-10% of personnel receiving

the vaccine [60]. The chronic signs and symptoms associated with anthrax vaccination are similar, if not identical, to those

found in GWI patients, suggesting that at least some of the chronic illnesses suffered by veterans of the Gulf War were

caused by military vaccines [59,60]. Undetectable microorganism contaminants in vaccines could have resulted in illness,

and may have been more likely to do so in those with compromised immune systems. This could include individuals with

DU or chemical exposures, or personnel who received multiple vaccines in a short period of time. Since contamination

with mycoplasmas has been found in commercial vaccines [61], the vaccines used in the Gulf War should be considered as

a possible source of the chronic infections found in GWI. Some of these vaccines, such as the filtered, cold-stored anthrax

vaccine, are prime suspects in GWI, because they could be easily contaminated with mycoplasmal infections and other

microorganisms [62]. Minor contamination of military vaccines may not be a health problem under ordinary

circumstances, but with the stress of deployment and the administration of multiple vaccines within a few days, personnel

could have been immune suppressed and more susceptible to minor contaminants in some vaccine lots.

INADEQUATE RESPONSES OF THE DOD AND DVA TO GWI

I feel strongly that the response to the GWI problem has been inadequate, and it continues to be inadequate [14,15]. This

response started with denial that there were illnesses associated with service in the Gulf War, it has continued with denial

that what we (biological exposures) and others (chemical exposures) have found in GWI patients are important in the

diagnosis and treatment of GWI, and it continues today with the denial that military vaccines could be a major source of

GWI. For example, in response to our publications and formal lectures at the DoD (1994 and 1996) and DVA (1995), the

DoD stated in letters to various members of Congress and to the press that M. fermentans infections are commonly found,

not dangerous and not even a human pathogen, and our results have not been duplicated by other laboratories. These

statements were completely false. The Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences taught its medical students

for years that this type of infection is very dangerous and can progress to system-wide organ failure and death [63]. In

addition, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has been publishing for years that this type of infection can result

in death in nonhuman primates [64] and in man [65]. The AFIP has also suggested treating patients with this type of

infection with doxycycline [66], which is one of the antibiotics that we have recommended [53-55]. Interestingly, U.S.

Army pathologist Dr. Shih-Ching Lo holds the U. S. Patent on M. fermentans (“Pathogenic Mycoplasma”[67]), and this

may be the real reason that in the response to our work on M. fermentans infections in GWI, guidelines were issued that

GWI patients should not be treated with antibiotics like doxycycline, even though in a significant number of patients it had

been shown to be beneficial. The DoD and DVA have also stated that we have not cooperated with them or the CDC in

studying this problem. This is also not true. We have done everything possible to cooperate with the DoD, DVA and CDC

on this problem, and we even published a letter in the Washington Post indicating that we have done everything possible to

cooperate with government agencies on GWI issues, including formally inviting DoD and DVA scientists and physicians

to our Institute for Molecular Medicine to learn our diagnostic procedures. We have been and are fully prepared to share

our data and procedures with government scientists and physicians. The DVA has responded with the establishment of VA

Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475, but many Gulf War Referral Centers at VA Medical Centers continue to be

hostile to the non-psychiatric treatment of GWI. The DoD and DVA continue to deny that family members of GWI

patients can contract illness or that there could be an infectious basis to GWI.

DOD/DVA SCORECARD ON GWI FROM PREVIOUS TESTIMONY

In my testimony to the U. S. Congress in 1998 [14,18], some suggestions were made to correct for the apparent lack of

appropriate response to GWI and the chronic infections found in GWI patients. It seems appropriate to go back and revisit

these suggestions to see if any of these were taken seriously or corrected independently (Updates in italics). Note that

similar comments were presented today to another House of Representatives subcommittee [15].

1. We must stop correct the notion that immediate family members cannot contract illnesses from veterans with GWI.

Denial that this has occurred has only angered veterans and their families and created a serious public health problem,

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

including spread of illnesses to the civilian population and contamination of our blood supply. This item has still not been

taken seriously by the DoD. The DVA has initiated a study to see if veterans’ family members have increased illnesses;

however, they have decided to group GWI patients together independent of the possible origins of their illness. Since

veterans who have their illness primarily due to chemical or environmental exposures that are not transmittable will be

grouped with veterans who have transmittable chronic infections, it is unlikely that studying family members of both

groups together will yield significant data. Whether intentional or not, this DVA study has apparently been designed to

fail. Potential problems with the nation’s blood and organ tissue supply due to contamination by chronic infections in

GWI and CFS patients are considered significant [68,69], but no U.S. government agency has apparently taken this

seriously. In a recent study in Europe approximately 6.4% of patients with CFS reported that their signs and symptoms

were linked to blood transfusions [70].

2. The diagnosis system used by the DoD and DVA to determine illness diagnosis must be overhauled and replaced by the

ICD-10 system. The categories in the older ICD-9 system have not kept pace with new medical discoveries in the

diagnosis and treatment of chronic illnesses. This has resulted in large numbers of patients from the Gulf War with

‘undiagnosed’ illnesses who cannot obtain treatment or benefits for their medical conditions. The DoD and DVA should be

using the ICD-10 diagnosis system where a category exists for chronic fatiguing illnesses (G93.3). Apparently little

progress in this area has been made by the DoD or DVA.

3. Denying claims and benefits by assigning partial disabilities due to PTSD should not be continued in patients that have

organic (medical) causes for their illnesses. For example, patients with chronic infections that can take up to or over a year

to successfully treat should be allowed benefits. The DVA has recently shown some flexibility in this area. For example,

Gulf War veterans with ALS will receive disability without having to prove that their disease was deployment-related.

Similarly, GWI patients with M. fermentans infections (and also their symptomatic family members with the same infection)

should receive disabilities. Thus far there has been no attempt to extend disability to GWI-associated infectious diseases.

Instead of waiting for years or decades for the research to catch up to the problem, the DoD and DVA should simply

accept that many of the chronic illnesses found in Gulf War veterans are deployment related and deserving of treatment

and compensation. Progress has been made in the acceptance that CFS and FMS in GWI veterans will be considered for

deployment-related disabilities.

4. Research efforts must be increased in the area of chronic illnesses. Unfortunately, federal funding for such illnesses is

often rebudgeted or funds removed. For example, Dr. William Reeves of the CDC in Atlanta sought protection under the

‘Federal Whistle Blower’s Act’ after he exposed misappropriation of funds allocated for CFS at the CDC. It is estimated

that over 3% of the adult U.S. population suffers from chronic fatiguing illnesses similar to GWI, yet there are few federal

dollars available for research on the diagnosis and treatment of these chronic illnesses, even though each year Congress

allocates such funds. There has been some progress at NIH on this issue, but in general little has changed. The DoD and

DVA have spent most of the hundreds of millions of dollars allocated for GWI research on psychiatric research. Most of

these funds have been spent on studies that have had negligible effect on veterans’ health. More effort must be put into

chemical, biological and/or radiological causes for GWI rather than more psychiatric studies.

5. Past and present senior DoD and DVA administrative personnel must be held accountable for the utter mismanagement

of the entire GWI problem. This has been especially apparent in the continuing denial that chronic infections could play a

role in GWI and the denial that immediate family members could have contracted their illnesses from veterans with GWI.

This has resulted in sick spouses and children being turned away from DoD and DVA facilities without diagnoses or

treatments. The responsibility for these civilians must ultimately be borne by the DoD and DVA. I believe that it is now

accountability time. The files must be opened so the American public has a better idea how many veterans and civilians

have died from illness associated with service in the Gulf War and how many have become sick because of an inadequate

response to this health crisis. Unfortunately, little or no progress has been made on these items for the last decade or

more, and the situation has not changed significantly since my last testimony to the U.S. House of Representatives [14] in

1998. Similarly, our earlier testimony to House Subcommittees was apparently disregarded as well [71,72].

REFERENCES AND NOTES CITED

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(Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) family members of mycoplasma-positive Gulf War Illness patients. J. Chronic

Fatigue Syndr. 2002; 10:in press.

2. Unwin C, Blatchley N, Coker W, et al. Health of UK servicemen who served in the Persian Gulf War. Lancet

1999; 353:169-178.

7

Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

3. Kizer KW, Joseph S, Rankin JT. Kizer KW, Joseph S, Rankin JT. Unexplained illness among Persian Gulf War

vetrans in an Air National Guard unit: preliminary report–August 1990-March 1995. Morbid. Mortal. Week.

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4. Steele L. Prevalence and patterns of Gulf War Illness in Kansas veterans: association of symptoms with

characteristics of person, place and time of military service. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2000; 152:992-1002.

5. Nicolson, G.L., Hyman, E., Korényi-Both, A., Lopez, D.A, Nicolson, N.L., Rea, W., Urnovitz, H. Progress on

Persian Gulf War Illnesses: reality and hypotheses. Intern. J. Occup. Med. Tox. 1995; 4:365-370.

6. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Haier J, Nicolson NL. Gulf War Illnesses: Role of chemical, radiological and biological

exposures. In: War and Health, H. Tapanainen, ed., Zed Press, Helinsiki, 2001; 431-446.

http://www.immed.org/publications/gulf_war_illness/whc.html&gt;

7. Nicolson GL. Gulf War Illnesses—their causes and treatment. Armed Forces Med. Dev. 2001; 2:41-44.

8. Nicolson GL, Berns P, Nasralla M, Haier J, Nicolson NL, Nass M. Gulf War Illnesses: chemical, radiological and

biological exposures resulting in chronic fatiguing illnesses can be identified and treated. J. Chronic Fatigue

Syndr. 2002; 10:in press.

9. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Chronic Fatigue Illness and Operation Desert Storm. J. Occup. Environ. Med.

1996; 38:14-16.

10. Murray-Leisure, K., Daniels, M.O., Sees, J., Suguitan, E., Zangwill, B., Bagheri, S., Brinser, E., Kimber, R.,

Kurban, R. Greene, W.H. Mucocutaneous-Intestinal-Rheumatic Desert Syndrome (MIRDS). Definition,

histopathology, incubation period, clinical course and association with desert sand exposure. Intern. J. Med.

1998; 1:47-72.

11. Engel CC Jr, Ursano R, Magruder C, et al. Psychological conditions diagnosed among veterans seeking

Department of Defense care for Gulf War-related health concerns. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 1999; 41:384-392.

12. Lange G, Tiersky L, DeLuca J, et al. Psychiatric diagnoses in Gulf War veterans with fatiguing illnesses.

Psychiat. Res. 1999; 89:39-48.

13. Haley RW, Kurt TL, Hom J. Is there a Gulf War Syndrome? Searching for syndromes by factor analysis of

symptoms. JAMA 1997; 277:215-222.

14. Nicolson GL. Written testimony to the Subcommittee on Benefits, Committee on Veterans’ Affaris, U. S. House

of Representatives, July 16, 1998.

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Relations, Committee on Government Reform, U. S. House of Representatives, January 24, 2002.

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resist strong evidence linking toxic causes to chronic health effects, 105th Congress, 1st Session, Report 105-388,

1997.

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of research emphasis are needed. Report GAO/SNIAD-97-163, 1997.

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War Chemical and Biological Incidents, U. S. Senate, November 19, 1998.

19. Sartin JS. Gulf War Illnesses: causes and controversies. Mayo Clinic Proc. 2000; 75:811-819.

20. Baumzweiger WE, Grove R. Brainstem-Limbic immune dysregulation in 111 Gulf War veterans: a clinical

evaluation of its etiology, diagnosis and response to headache treatment. Intern. J. Med. 1998; 1:129-143.

21. Haley RW, Fleckenstein JL, Marshall WW, et al. Effect of basal ganglia injury on central dopamine activity in

Gulf War Syndrome: correlation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and plasma homovanillic acid levels.

Arch. Neurol. 2000; 280:981-988.

22. Magill AJ, Grogl M, Fasser RA, et al. Viscerotropic leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in soldiers

returning from Operation Desert Storm. (1993) N. Engl. J. Med. 1993; 328:1383-1387.

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39.

24. Urnovitz HB, Tuite JJ, Higashida JM et al. RNAs in the sera of Persian Gulf War veterans have segments

homologous to chromosome 22q11.2 Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. 1999; 6:330-335.

8

Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

25. Hannan KL, Berg DE, Baumzweiger W, et al. Activation of the coagulation system in Gulf War Illnesses: a

potential pathophysiologic link with chronic fatigue syndrome, a laboratory approach to diagnosis. Blood Coag.

Fibrinol. 2000; 7:673-678.

26. Nicolson, G.L., Nasralla, M, Hier, J. and Nicolson, N.L. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic mycoplasmal

infections in Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: relationship to Gulf War Illness. Biomed.

Therapy 1998; 16: 266-271.

27. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Gulf War Illnesses: complex medical, scientific and political paradox. Med. Confl.

Surviv. 1998; 14:74-83.

28. Abou-Donia MB, Wilmarth KR. Neurotoxicity resulting from coexposure to pyridostigmine bromide, DEET and

permethrin: Implications of Gulf War exposures. J. Tox. Environ. Health 1996; 48:35-56.

29. Moss JL. Synergism of toxicity of N,N-dimethyl-m-toluamide to German cockroaches (Othopiera blattellidae) by

hydrolytic enzyme inhibitors. J. Econ. Entomol. 1996; 89:1151-1155.

30. Baker DJ, Sedgwick EM. Single fibre electromyographic changes in man after organophosphate exposure. Hum.

Expl. Toxicol. 1996; 15:369-375.

31. Jamal GA. Gulf War syndrome-a model for the complexity of biological and environmental interactions with

human health. Adver. Drug React. Tox. Rev. 1997; 16:133-170.

32. Miller CS, Prihoda TJ. The Environmental and Exposure and Sensitivity Inventory (EESI): a standardized

approacxh for quantifying symptoms and intolerances for research and clinical applications. Tox. Ind. Health

1999; 15:386-397.

33. Haley RW, Kurt TL. Self-reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical combinations in the Gulf War. A cross-

sectional epidemiologic study. JAMA 1997; 277:231-237.

34. Gordon JJ, Inns RH, Johnson MK et al. The delayed neuropathic effects of nerve agents and some other

organophosphorus compounds. Arch. Toxicol. 1983; 52:71-82.

35. Korényi-Both AL, Molnar AC, Korényi-Both AL, et al. Al Eskan disease: Desert Storm pneumonitis. Mil. Med.

1992; 157:452-462.

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Directorate A. Scientific and Technological Options Assessment. January 2001.

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Status of efforts to identify Gulf War Syndrome: Multiple Toxic Exposures. June 26, 1997 hearing. Washington

DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1998.

38. Kalinich JF, Ramakrishnan N, McClain DE. A procedure for the rapid detection of depleted uranium in metal

shrapnel fragments. Mil. Med. 2000; 165:626-629.

39. Hooper FJ, Squibb KS, Siegel EL, et al. Elevated uranium excretion by soldiers with retained uranium shrapnel.

Health Phys. 1999; 77:512-519.

40. Baseman, J.B. and Tully, J.G. Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, reemerging, and burdened by their notoriety. Emerg.

Infect. Dis. 1997; 3:21-32.

41. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Haier J, et al. Mycoplasmal infections in chronic illnesses: Fibromyalgia and Chronic

Fatigue Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, HIV-AIDS and Rheumatoid Arthritis. Med. Sentinel 1999; 4:172-176.

42. Nicolson, G.L. and Nicolson, N.L. Diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasmal infections in Gulf War Illness-

CFIDS patients. Intern. J. Occup. Med. Immunol. Tox. 1996; 5:69-78.

43. Nicolson, G.L., Nicolson, N.L. and Nasralla, M. Mycoplasmal infections and Chronic Fatigue Illness (Gulf War

Illness) associated with deployment to Operation Desert Storm. Intern. J. Med. 1997; 1:80-92.

44. Vojdani A, Franco AR. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. hominis and M. penetrans

in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gulf War Illness. J. Chronic

Fatigue Syndr. 1999; 5:187-197.

45. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Nicolson NL. The pathogenesis and treatment of mycoplasmal infections. Antimicrob.

Infect. Dis. Newsl. 1999; 17:81-88.

46. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Franco AR, et al. Diagnosis and integrative treatment of intracellular bacterial

infections in Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, Rheumatoid Arthritis and other

chronic illnesses. Clin. Pract. Alt. Med. 2000; 1:92-102.

47. Gray GC, Kaiser KS, Hawksworth AW, et al. No serologic evidence of an association found between Gulf War

service and Mycoplasma fermentans infection. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1999; 60:752-757.

9

Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

48. Choppa, P.C., Vojdani, A., Tagle, C., Andrin, R. and Magtoto, L. Multiplex PCR for the detection of

Mycoplasma fermentans, M. hominis and M. penetrans in cell cultures and blood samples of patients with Chronic

Fatigue Syndrome. Mol. Cell Probes 1998; 12:301-308.

49. Nasralla M, Haier J, Nicolson GL. Multiple mycoplasmal infections detected in blood of Chronic Fatigue and

Fibromyalgia Syndrome patients. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 1999; 18:859-865.

50. U. S. Congress, Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, U. S. chemical and biological

warfare-related dual use exports to Iraq and their possible impact on the health consequences of the Persian Gulf

War , 103rd Congress, 2nd Session, Report May 25, 1994.

51. Walling AD. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Lou Gehrig’s Disease. Amer. Fam. Physician 1999; 59:1489-1496.

52. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Haier J, Pomfret J. High frequency of systemic mycoplasmal infections in Gulf War

veterans and civilians with Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). J. Clin. Neurosci. 2002; in press.

53. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Doxycycline treatment and Desert Storm. JAMA 1995; 273:618-619.

54. Nicolson GL. Mycoplasmal infections–Diagnosis and treatment of Gulf War Syndrome/CFIDS. CFIDS

Chronicle 1996; 9(3): 66-69.

55. Nicolson GL. Considerations when undergoing treatment for chronic infections found in Chronic Fatigue

Syndrome, Fibromyalgia Syndrome and Gulf War Illnesses. (Part 1). Antibiotics Recommended when indicated

for treatment of Gulf War Illness/CFIDS/FMS (Part 2). Intern. J. Med. 1998; 1:115-117, 123-128.

56. Cherry N, Creed F, Silman A, et al. Health and exposures of United Kingdom Gulf war veterans. Part II: The

relation of health to exposure. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 2001; 58:299-306.

57. Goss Gilroy Inc. Health Study of Canadian Forces Personnel Involved in the 1991 Conflict in the Persian Gulf

Volume I. Prepared for Gulf War Illness Advisory Committee. Ottawa: Department of National Defense. April 20,

1998.

58. Mahan CM, Kang HK, Ishii EK et al. Anthrax vaccination and self-reported symptoms, functional status and

medical conditions in the national health survey of Gulf War era veterans and their families. Presented to the

Conference on Illnesses among Gulf War Veterans: A Decade of Scientific Research. Military and Veterans

Health Coordinating Board, Research Working Group. Alexandria, VA: January 24-26, 2001.

59. Nicolson GL, Nass M, Nicolson NL. Anthrax vaccine: controversy over safety and efficacy. Antimicrob. Infect.

Dis. Newsl. 2000; 18(1):1-6.

60. Nicolson GL, Nass M, Nicolson NL. The anthrax vaccine controversy. Questions about its efficacy, safety and

strategy. Med. Sentinel 2000; 5:97-101.

61. Thornton D. A survey of mycoplasma detection in vaccines. Vaccine 1986; 4:237-240.

62. Nass M. Anthrax vaccine linked to Gulf War Syndrome. Report to the Institute of Molecular Medicine, October

2, 2001.

63. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Pathology Workbook VI,

64. Lo, S.-C., Wear, D.J., Shih, W.-K., Wang, R.Y.-H., Newton, P.B. and Rodriguez, J.F. Fatal systemic infections of

nonhuman primates by Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain). Clin. Infect. Dis. 1993; 17(Suppl 1):S283-

S288.

65. Lo, S.-C., Dawson, M.S., Newton, P.B. et al. Association of the virus-like infectious agent originally reported in

patients with AIDS with acute fatal disease in previously healthy non-AIDS patients. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.

1989; 41:364-376.

66. Lo, S.-C., Buchholz, C.L., Wear, D.J., Hohm, R.C. and Marty, A.M. Histopathology and doxycycline treatment

in a previously healthy non-AIDS patient systemically infected by Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain).

Mod. Pathol. 1991; 6:750-754.

67. Lo S-C. Pathogenic mycoplasma. U.S. Patent 5,242,820. Issued September 7, 1993.

68. Hinshaw C. American Academy of Environmental Medicine, Personal Communication, 1997.

69. Gass, R., Fisher, J., Badesch, D., et al. Donor-to-host transmission of Mycoplasma hominis in lung allograft

recipients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 1996; 22:567-568.

70. De Becker P, McGregor N, De Meirlier. Possible triggers and mode of onset of chronic fatigue syndrome. J.

Chronic Fatigue Sydnr. 2002; 10:in press.

71. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Written testimony to the Subcommittee on Human Resource and Intergovernmental

Relations, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, April 2, 1996.

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Prof. Garth L. Nicolson, Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Subcommittee on Health, 1/24/02

72. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Written testimony to the Subcommittee on Human Resource and Intergovernmental

Relations, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, June 26, 1997.

Under penalty of perjury, I swear that the statements above are true and correct to the best of my knowledge, information

and belief.

Garth L. Nicolson, PhD

President, Chief Scientific Officer and Research Professor

The Institute for Molecular Medicine

and

Professor of Integrative Medicine

Address:

The Institute for Molecular Medicine (Website: http://www.immed.org)

15162 Triton Lane

Huntington Beach, CA 92649

Tel (714) 903-2900 Fax (714) 379-2082

11

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11/04/01 The Institute for Molecular Medicine releases information and letters to the Department of Defense on the alleged sabotage of an independent study on the incidence of chronic infections in Gulf War Illnesses.

The Institute for Molecular Medicine has decided to release the contents of its efforts over the last few years to provide solutions to the chronic infections found in Gulf War Illnesses and potentially to agents useful in bioterrorism to the Department of Defense. Over the last two years the Institute for Molecular Medicine has tried to work with the DoD to overcome differences in our reports, now confirmed by at least three other laboratories, that ~40% of Gulf War Illness patients are infected with a pathogenic microorganism, Mycoplasma fermentans. The DoD contends that 0% of Gulf War Illness patients are infected with this microorganism, prompting a study on the techniques used for detection of mycoplasmal infections utilizing a DoD laboratory and two independent laboratories. A DoD contractor, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS), was chosen by the DoD to conduct and analyze the results of the study. The reason that this is now being released is unconfirmed information that alleges that the DoD and the Department of Veterans’ Affairs have already sabotaged the clinical study (VA Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475) on the effectiveness of treating Gulf War Illnesses with antibiotics.

________________________________________________________________

Date: June 3, 2001

From: Dr. Garth Nicolson, President and Dr. Nancy Nicolson, COB and CEO,

The Institute for Molecular Medicine

Subject: AIBS Review of Etiology of Gulf War Illness (Mycoplasma)

After reading the review of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS), a Dept. of Defense contractor, on our efforts to determine why a subset of veterans with Gulf War Illnesses (GWI) show evidence of mycoplasmal infections and the development of treatments to help these veterans overcome their illnesses and their review of the flawed DoD controlled study on mycoplasma incidence in GWI, we must conclude that their extremely negative and we believe biased report and conclusions were completely predictable and likely generated to please the DoD who paid for the study. We entered into a subcontract from a DoD contractor (SRA Life Sciences) working with the U. S. Army to test GWI patients for mycoplasmal infections with the naïve notion that they and the Army would deliver high quality blood samples to our laboratory and other independent laboratories for testing. Nothing could have been further from the truth, and now the DoD and their contractors are using this flawed study to trash everything that we and other laboratories have done in this area in what appears to be a crude attempt to prevent further research. The principal investigator for the study was LTC Charles Engel, a psychiatrist at the Walter Reed Army Medical Center in Washington DC who has published extensively on psychological causes of GWI. Dr. Engel has been particularly negative about us and our work over the last several years and was not an unbiased investigator without conflict of interest.

As examples of the lengths that AIBS went to provide “evidence” that our work is incorrect and does not provide any solutions to veterans with GWI, the following was extracted from their review.

1. Throughout the review the AIBS panel continuously referred to our peer-reviewed publications and other in this area to be from “obscure journals,” while at the same time the AIBS panel used references in equally “obscure journals” or even unpublished data to support their negative conclusions. Our first publication on GWI was in the most widely read medical journal in the world [1], and our supporting data were published in environmental medical journals [2,3]. Others have published in peer-reviewed journals data similar to our own showing a high frequency of mycoplasmal infections in GWI [4]. This evidence, particularly from other laboratories, was largely ignored, except for the negative data on mycoplasmal infections in GWI from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. These negative data are suspect, since the U. S. Army informally told some GWI patients that they had mycoplasmal infections, and they were treated with antibiotics and given medical discharges (see attached email).

2. The review purposely diminishes the role of Mycoplasma fermentans in causing illness and ignores publications from the U. S. Army that M. fermentans can cause a fatal illness. For example, on page 11 references to unpublished data were used to actually negate the publications from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology showing that M. fermentans causes a fulminating infection in nonhuman primates that progresses to death [5]. The U. S. Army has also published that humans infected with M. fermentans can have a fatal disease, and they published that doxycycline can be successfully used to treat this infection [6]. This is very similar to what we have published for GWI [1-3] but the Army publications were largely ignored by the panel. For years U. S. Army pathologists taught medical students at the Uniform Services University of the Health Sciences that M. fermentans causes a serious infection in humans that can be treated with doxycycline (“The most serious presentation of M. fermentans infections is that of a fluminant systemic disease that begins as a flu-like illness. Patients rapidly deteriorate developing severe complications, including adult respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or multiple organ failure.”) [7].

3. Why would this panel use unpublished or unknown references to stress that M. fermentans is not pathogenic and infecting mice, rats or even monkeys with M. fermentans does not result in any signs or symptoms when the literature indicates that these animals, especially primates, eventually die after receiving M. fermentans [8,9]? Perhaps the reason for this is that U. S. Army pathologists hold the patent on M. fermentans (“Pathogenic Mycoplasma” U.S. Patent No. 5,242,820) [10], and the review attempts to down-play its pathogenic effects in animals and humans.

4. The AIBS panel purposely used the wrong citations to demonstrate that our data have not been replicated by another laboratory. For example, they used the wrong reference from the group of Vojdani [11] that did not even examine mycoplasmal infections in GWI patients in an attempt to demonstrate that we misrepresent what other laboratories have found concerning mycoplasmal infections in GWI patients. In fact, the correct peer-reviewed reference from the same laboratory found almost exactly what we previously published that mycoplasmal infections occur at rather high frequency in GWI patients [4]. In addition, they completely ignored that another laboratory (the laboratory of Prof. Baseman that is furnishing the diagnostic results for a large VA clinical trial on mycoplasmal infections in GWI) obtained data similar to what we published-approximately 40% of over 1,600 GWI patients were positive for mycoplasmal infections and that over 80% of these infections were caused by M. fermentans.

5. The AIBS panel states that it is unclear whether the antibiotic treatment of GWI patients was a placebo effect. In fact, we stated in our publications that GWI patients treated with other antibiotics, such as penicilins, become more not less symptomatic, indicating that the treatment with doxycycline was not a placebo effect [12]. We found similar to the U. S. Army [6] that treatment of patients with M. fermentans infections using doxycycline was effective. Of course, this was ignored by the panel. Also ignored were the preliminary findings of Dept. of Veterans’ Affairs physicians who had successfully treated GWI patients with doxycycline. These unpublished results from the VA itself were important in establishing the large VA study to examine the effectiveness of treating mycoplasmal infections in GWI patients with doxycycline (VA Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475) using a protocol similar to the one that we have published [1-3, 13].

6. The AIBS panel states that “there were indeed some minor problems with the quality of the samples” and “it is extremely troublesome that Dr. Nicolson did not communicate this information to anyone.” We did not consider these minor, and in fact, we stated that the quality of all of the DoD blood samples was so poor that these samples would have been immediately rejected if sent to our certified reference diagnostic laboratory. It was apparent that the samples had been frozen and thawed, an unacceptable procedure for the testing protocol because it destroys the DNA in the samples. This was communicated to the contractor, even though we were told not to report this until the meeting that was called to discuss the results. We were criticized for performing the assays with these samples, even though our contract stated clearly that we must perform the assays. The panel stated that “no evidence was presented that suggested there was mishandling of the samples.” However, they stated in their conclusions that “sample handling is a factor that also needs to be thoroughly investigated.” In retrospect, we now must conclude that the samples may have been intentionally or unintentionally sabotaged to discredit the work on mycoplasmal infections in GWI patients.

7. We were criticized for using a technique, nucleoprotein gene tracking, that had not been validated by other techniques to report on the presence of mycoplasmal infections in GWI patients. In fact, we did subsequently use another technique, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and other laboratories have used this latter technique to obtain similar results to our published studies [4]. In fact, Prof. Joel Baseman used a PCR technique to find that ~40% of the over 1,600 GWI patients in VA Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475 had mycoplasmal infections, and over 80% of these were M. fermentans infections. This was reported at the last NIH Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Coordinating Board in Washington DC [14]. These findings were ignored by the panel.

8. We were criticized on ethical grounds for not using an FDA licensed test for a clinical trial. We did not design or execute the clinical trial that is being directed and performed by the Department of Veterans’ Affairs. This experimental protocol conducted by the VA and DoD (VA Cooperative Clinical Study Program #475) was approved by a VA IRB committee and the VA administration. To our knowledge no ethical violations occurred in the design or execution of this study, but it was never under our auspices. That we should wait 10-20 years (the average time required to obtain FDA approval) after a new test is developed to receive FDA approval before applying our knowledge to help Gulf War veterans and their family members is completely ridiculous. For example, the prostate specific antigen (PSA) test was used routinely in clinical practice for decades before it finally received FDA approval a few years ago. We have helped numerous Gulf War veterans and their family members who became ill with similar symptoms overcome GWI without any government financial assistance. The fact that the Army concludes in its cover letter that it will no longer support studies concerning mycoplasmal infections in Gulf War veterans is a forgone conclusion that could have been predicted and will not change our mission to assist veterans with GWI. Since they have not given us any help or financial assistance in the past, we certainly do not expect the DoD to give us any assistance or cooperation in the future.

References Cited

1. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Doxycycline treatment and Desert Storm. JAMA 1996; 273:618-619.

2. Nicolson GL, Nicolson NL. Diagnosis and treatment of mycoplasmal infections in Persian Gulf War Illness-CFIDS patients. Intern. J. Occup. Med. Immunol. Toxicol. 1996; 5: 69-78.

3. Nicolson GL, Nicolson, NL, Nasralla M. Mycoplasmal infections and Chronic Fatigue Illness (Gulf War Illness) associated with deployment to Operation Desert Storm. Intern. J. Medicine 1998; 1:80-92.

4. Vojdani A, Franco AR. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. hominis and M. penetrans in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, Rheumatoid Arthritis and Gulf War Illness. J. Chronic Fatigue Syndr. 1999; 5:187-197.

5. Lo SC, Wear DJ, Shih WK, Wang RYH, Newton PB, Rodriguez JF. Fatal systemic infections of nonhuman primates by Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain). Clin. Infect. Diseases 1993; 17(S1):283-288.

6. Lo SC, Buchholz CL, Wear DJ, Hohm RC, Marty AM. Histopathology and doxycycline treatment in a previously healthy non-AIDS patient systemically infected by Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain). Mod. Pathol. 1991; 6:750-754 .

7. Marty AM. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Pathology Syllabus VI, p. 91-94, 1994.

8. Lo SC, Dawson MS, Newton PB, et al. Association of the virus-like infectious agent originally reported in patients with AIDS with acute fatal disease in previously healthy non-AIDS patients. Amer. J. Tropical Med. Hygiene 1989; 41:364-376.

9. Lo SC, Wang RYH, Newton PB, et al. Fetal infection of silvered leaf monkeys with a virus-like infectious agent derived from a patient with AIDS. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hygiene 1989; 40:399-409.

10. Lo SC. Pathogenic mycoplasma. U.S. Patent No. 5,242,820. Continuation-in-part patent issued September 7, 1993; continuation in part filed: June 6, 1991; original patent filed June 18, 1986.

11. Choppa, Vojdani A, Tagle C, Andrin R, Magtoto L. Multiplex PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma fermentans, M. hominis and M. penetrans in cell cultures and blood samples of patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Mol. Cell. Probes 1998; 12:301-308.

12. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Nicolson NL. The pathogenesis and treatment of mycoplasmal infections. Antimicrob. Infect. Dis. Newsl. 1999; 17(11):81-88.

13. Nicolson GL, Nasralla M, Franco AR, et al. Diagnosis and Integrative Treatment of Intracellular Bacterial Infections in Chronic Fatigue and Fibromyalgia Syndromes, Gulf War Illness, Rheumatoid Arthritis and other Chronic Illnesses. Clin. Pract. Alt. Med. 2000; 1(2):92-102.

14. Donta S, Engel C. NIH Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Coordinating Board, February 7, 2000.

________________________________________________________________

March 1, 2001

LTG James B. Peake

The Surgeon General of the Army

5109 Leeseburg Pike

Falls Church, VA 22041-3258

Dear General Peake;

Although I risk being presumptuous, I felt compelled to report to you my impressions of the AIBS 26 February meeting and some confidential ideas relating to my own perspective. Since this was the first time I have attended in its entirety a formal evaluation involving the ‘players’ (both civilian and military principals) involved with the mycoplasma validation study, I believe my perspective may contribute and my recommendations may facilitate an advantageous outcome.

I. Friction amongst the participants was based upon what I perceive to be philosophical differences in the approach to the design, methodologies, workscope, and reporting of results. The lack of sufficient interdisciplinary training amongst certain participants was necessary for the accurate assessment of experimental design and may have presented handicaps that were potentially obstructive to initial success. This problem is not uncommon when we consider that most of the investigators were trained during an era of intense specialization in science and medicine. These factors are presented against a background of historical acrimony amongst the investigators, which is not uncommon in a highly competitive, and often special interest motivated arena.

II. Basic flaws in the experimental design and execution of the study, which involves a continuing evolution and perfection of the methods employed in the study compounded by a lack of communication appropriate for professional colleagues may have contributed to observed discrepancies.

III. Complexities associated with a historical political pattern compounded by the necessity to eventually present our military establishment in a positive light to the public while considering historical security related issues and judgments implemented during the Cold War may have effected the study. It is imperative that all participants comport themselves in a manner that will not further dampen public confidence in our military and undermine the very essence and existence of a healthy and powerful Armed Forces. We all face pioneering obstacles and challenges on all fronts (defense, scientific, political, and global relations relating to the task at hand).

Solutions to (I-III)

In conversations with LTC Friedl and Engel, I am absolutely confident that the clashing personalities of some of the players can be overcome. I have spoken to Drs. Garth Nicolson and Joel Baseman to advise them that academic approaches to the scientific dilemma we are experiencing need to be placed in a defense related perspective. It is difficult for people who read about a war to truly comprehend being in combat and actively fighting a war. I am aware that a matrix organization such as the Pentagon has numerous advisors from the academic and corporate sectors, and historically while this kind of marriage worked well with the Manhattan Project during WWII, perhaps it would be timely and prudent to re-evaluate the communication channels and potential influences of special interests amongst these sectors.

In terms of philosophical problems relating to the study discussed, reviewed, and analyzed at the AIBS review, my impression is that LTC Engel has reacted strictly in terms of a military perspective possibly shadowed by a sense of urgency to report the initial results and discrepancies in the study. I hypothesize that internal and external pressures that are tantamount to a military setting could theoretically result in a proclivity to report observations in a manner that would not pass muster in an academic setting but would be more conducive to the quick reaction of the former. On the other hand, the academician accustomed to the University setting or private sector approach of Drs. Garth Nicolson and Joel Baseman, and to a lesser degree myself necessitates that the publication of data is precluded if there are serious methodological problems and discrepancies. Of course academicians are subject to time constraints by granting agencies and corporate entities are subject to completing milestones in a timely manner, but the normal standard operating procedure that characterizes the academic setting and corporate setting usually does not have to consider directly the defense of our nation on a daily basis.

The major discrepancies and cause for contentious interactions evident on the 26th were focused on the fact that other highly qualified laboratories that were not participants in the study, have reproduced and published observations corroborating the observations of the Nicolsons. The observations noted by the Nicolsons and 4 civilian laboratories outside the scope of the study indicated that a subset of Gulf War Veterans (~40%) was infected with mycoplasmas utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular biological and other methods. The results reported from these laboratories were within the appropriate degrees of freedom considered necessary for statistical agreement. In contrast, the laboratory of Dr. Shyh Ching Lo at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, a pioneer in the field of mycoplasma and anthrax research, has reported consistently negative (0%) results. These observations by Dr. Lo are somewhat puzzling as previously he had reported informally that he had noted ~14-21% positive tests for Gulf War veterans several years ago using an antibody-based methodology. In fact, an initial cause for contention at the training workshop in January 1997 was that antibody based testing was more sensitive than PCR as suggested by Dr. Lo. This statement was strongly objected to by Drs. Garth Nicolson and Baseman on the grounds that antibody based tests are not reliable for the conclusion that an active infection is present. This same sentiment was corroborated by COL Friedlander at Fort Detrick when the Nicolsons visited with Major General Parker and his research team.

Faced with discrepancies of the positive observations noted by Dr. Garth Nicolson and Dr. Baseman compounded by the fact that Dr. Lo consistently has reported no positives contributed to a highly charged atmosphere of disagreement and an adversarial tone of interaction amongst the participants at the 26th review. The following observations describe the polarization of disagreement that I observed at the 26th February meeting.

A. Dr. Garth Nicolson argued that other labs outside the scope of the study were able to reproduce and publish results in peer-reviewed journals that corroborated that a subset of Gulf War Illness patients had mycoplasmal infections. He then went on the show that there are a subset of civilian Chronic Fatigue Illness patients as well as patients suffering from a variety of autoimmune disorders who also appear to have mycoplasmal as well as other bacterial and viral infections, and that as we move further away from the Gulf War Era, the civilian and military patients begin to exhibit a similar pattern of multiple infections. On the other hand, the closer we were to the Gulf War era at the time of the testing for infections, the military patients appeared to be infected with primarily one type of mycoplasmal infection, Mycoplasma fermentans, which was not found in civilian chronic illnesses.

B. Drs. Garth Nicolson and Baseman then argued that probable reasons for discrepancies involving a lack of reproducibility of positive observations in split DoD samples in the Nicolson and Basemen laboratories may have resulted from poor sample quality due to handling and shipping. In fact, the Cowans described these kinds of difficulties involved in the sample handling, and all parties were particularly perturbed that the participating laboratories were not introduced to SRA prior to the execution of the study. The Cowans replaced Dr. James Lane in the management capacity of the samples.

C. LTC Engel then opined that it was unconscionable that none of the participants voiced their objections to the quality control of the samples until after the initial study was completed. Dr. Garth Nicolson and one of the review boards, Dr. Clarke asserted that the wording of the contracts awarded to the Nicolson and Baseman lab legally precluded them from rejecting the samples. Dr. Garth Nicolson stated that in spite of this he and Dr. Baseman as well as Dr. Lo had noted hemolysis in the samples and very low amounts of DNA and reported this during the course of the study. Dr. Garth Nicolson further stated that the samples in the study would never have been approved for assay in the Nicolson’s certified reference laboratory and that in instances when there was a question of quality or methodological problems we automatically re-run the assays at no charge to the customer.

D. Dr. Lo then interjected that Drs. Nicolson and Baseman were observing false positives, a statement that was hotly contested. Dr. Baseman presented a series of elegant immunno-confocal microscopy studies elegantly showing the presence of mycoplasma in Gulf War Veterans white blood cells. He further showed a series of analyses comparing chelex and Quiagen-extracted DNA that are used in studies involving PCR technology and showed the reduction of recovery of extracted materials at various phases of purification. He then concluded that the samples used in the study were at the threshold of sensitivity detection and were therefore unreliable for a comprehensive analysis. Dr. Garth Nicolson stated that you cannot analyze “garbage.” My own opinion is a technique is as only as good as the sensitivity of the measurement. In PCR one has to optimize the conditions of the reaction for uniformity and sensitivity considerations as well as provide a continual scrutiny for contamination in all reagents. In fact we routinely test both solid and liquid reagents that we purchase for we have noted a recurrence of contamination in commercial products when we first opened the reagent bottles.

E. Dr. Lo went on to state he could not find Mycoplasma fermantans in any of the samples and did allow that perhaps there were shipping problems. He presented two papers that he said showed that a study involving 30 laboratories using PCR indicated that there was disagreement in observations amongst some of the laboratories with respect to the positive test for Chlamydia. Dr. Baseman asked “are you sure that all the laboratories used the same optimization conditions?” Dr. Lo answered “Yes!” In fact, the laboratories involved in the study in the manuscript cited by Dr. Lo were not uniformly consistent in aspects of the techniques.

My impression of the assertions of all the participants of the study is that they all have valid points and are all partially right as well as wrong (including myself). My opinion based upon experience since I was in graduate school (1979-1982) is that there are problems in any field, including molecular biology. At the time I was a graduate student those students who could not ‘pass muster’ went on to be technicians at companies that manufactured molecular biological reagents. At the time I told my professors that one day this might come back to haunt us as we may eventually use substandard reagents. Since my graduate days I have always been leery of commercial reagents, even when they are presented as being of the highest level of purity. For this reason I demand constant testing for contaminants in our laboratory. We also spend thousands of dollars on laboratory duct cleaning, and enforce absolute stringency in sterile techniques. We also do different steps of the purification, mixing, amplification, separation, etc. in different isolation rooms. It is my opinion that there is a lack of standardization in the molecular biological community regarding particular assays such as PCR. All PCR assays must be optimized according to the primers and materials as well as source of materials to be assayed. Our lab uses many built in internal standards as we feel that there is no such thing as too many controls. We should have communicated this better to the participants. In our defense we are constantly refining our techniques. Since the onset of the study, our techniques have been continually updated and are part of our proprietary information that is the basis for our company being evaluated by a conservative Wall Street Firm at $40 million after nine months in operation with the projection of $160 million by summer. I must reiterate that there are no sufficient guidelines to enforce proper standards and controls, and companies that manufacture molecular biological reagents may have flaws in the execution of their product development which can impact upon the quality of the reagents with the possibility of introducing lot variations. This possibility would definitely make it a requirement that all laboratories participating in a blinded study should use the same “batch” solutions for uniformity as well as making certain all solutions are absolutely fresh. This could reduce at least some variables that may be introduced into the assays. In defense of those manufactures of molecular biological reagents, the field is still in a pioneering phase in spite of the advances of the last 20 years. Unfortunately, the participants in the study did not communicate these concerns to one another in an effective manner appropriate to a colleague interaction.

The analysis of blood is complicated because it is composed of complex macromolecules that fall into a statistical mechanical ensemble system (a multi-bodied system that is comprised of complex macromolecules and often polymers that adapt a distribution of conformations but tend to favor a distribution equivalent to an intermediate energy state). Stringent guidelines need to be enforced for the investigator to successfully replicate the appropriate statistical mechanical average. Since the conformation of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, deoxyribonucleoproteins, etc. can be influenced by the purity of the solution, the type of test tube used, the ionic concentration, the volume as compared to solute/solvent concentrations, etc. needs to be considered. Thus it is mandatory that a PCR assay be designed to maximize successful reproducibility. If strict sterile procedural requirements are not followed along with scrutinizing the kinetics of the reactions (stopwatch logistics), the likelihood of a successful outcome will be compromised. This means that if the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology is performing the assay at 9 AM EST, the Nicolson laboratory should be performing the assay at 6 AM PST. Communication needs to be open at all times amongst the labs. This did not occur in the study.

The “shoulda-coulda-woulda” undertones and overtones pervasive throughout the February 26th proceedings, in my opinion, painted all the participants in a somewhat ridiculous vein. However, pioneers are always subject to hindsight revelations. I cannot emphasize how important sample integrity is to the successful outcome of the study. Quality assurance, open communication, lack of consistency in shipping, handling, and perhaps a uniform stringent adherence to sterile procedures inhibited the logistics of this study. There was also a lack of continuity with the change in personnel at SRA (Dr. Jim Lane departed, the Cowans replaced him, and the fact that no one interacted in a consistent manner with SRA) presented a huge obstacle. Another onerous consideration, which is difficult to voice, is that a person/s unknown to all participants may have interfered with the sample coding. I do not want to create or project unnecessary paranoia, but many of us have had experiences relating to this type of work that do not fall into the category of normalcy. Based upon advice from professional intelligence operatives, there is a strong suspicion and allegation that subterfuge may have been enacted by an unknown element. It has been suggested that there are individuals unknown to Dr. Lo, Dr. Baseman, Drs. Nicolson, LTC Engel, Dr. Cowan and Ms. Cowan as well as trusted technical staff who may be interfering. The only information we have been given is that the potential suspect’s use a moniker and various alias names. We do not know who they are at this time nor do we believe that these are ‘real’ names.

We recommend that security measures need to be implemented. We also recommend that past attitudes be completely put to rest. Everyone needs to ‘bury the hatchet.’ We are in a new millennium and the Cold War must finally end. Any remnant of Cold War agendas needs to be put to rest if we are to implement directives that may have resulted from the psychological climate of a very polarized era. In our laboratory we have scientists who grew up and were trained in the former Soviet Union and Red China as well as scientists from every ethnic persuasion and religious background including Palestinians and Chasidic Jews. We even have the exclusive world-wide rights to distribute and manufacture an herbal formulation that the Red Chinese Army utilized against agent orange through our partnership with the Chaka Zulu whose former health minister grew up within a “communist” ideology. We all should be able to work together and realize we are facing bioterrorist mentalities that do not grasp that if your enemy is sick, eventually your friend will be also.

We recommend that there be a clarification of the need for cross-disciplinary trained professionals to be assessed in terms of an oversight role along side those professionals who are more specialized. Two of the participants (LTC Engel and Dr. Cowan) verbally reported that their training in their respective disciplines made them feel somewhat ill equipped to deal with complex molecular biological systems. Since it is likely that Gulf War illnesses are part of a category of chronic disease based upon multfactorial considerations we need to have a better understanding of how to put the psychiatric ramifications in terms of the epidemiology within the context of complex molecular biology and biochemistry. This is quite a challenge, but I believe it is achievable. The other professionals evidenced a frustration in communicating the details of the molecular biological systems to professionals of the aforementioned background. It is my feeling that Dr. Shyh Ching Lo has the training to move with ease between the disciplines. Dr. Garth L. Nicolson is also trained in multiple disciplines and excels at an engineering perspective as applied to experimental systems involving complex biochemical, molecular biological, and cell biological processes. Dr Baseman is a superb microbiologist and cell biologist who has a very open-minded perspective and is very conservative in his experimental implementation of the basic dictate of Roger Bacon’s carefully detailed treatise of experimentation and detailed observation. Therefore, both Drs. Garth Nicolson and Joel Baseman are extremely prudent in their conclusions as evidenced by the fact that their published peer-reviewed manuscripts always include multiple controls. Dr. Lloyd Old once stated “the art of science is the art of the proper control.” It is hard to be objective about oneself but in terms of cross-disciplinary training, I excel at discerning the fine details related to the chemical physics of molecular biological systems such as complex chromatin chemistry.

I know we can succeed to reconcile all these problems related to the study if we could develop a higher level of trust. I feel that problems in trust have arisen amongst the players because of negative experiences that are attributable to “the fog of war” as communicated to me in a letter from General Schwartzkoph. I know we can get together. LTC Engel and I emphasized this at the February 26th meeting.

Although I swore that I would never go into a lab again (I enjoy interfacing with the financial community), I would be willing to go into the lab side by side with all concerned especially Dr. Lo. I feel that together we can troubleshoot discrepancies in the technical execution of the assays by directing our technicians and possible ‘rooting-out’ of unconscious mistakes at the technical level. Many times, it has been my experience and observation that experimental discrepancies often boil down to what may be viewed as a trivial manipulation of the samples that can dramatically impact the results.

I have enclosed a sample of an e-mail we got from a truly bitter veteran, a former MAJ in the 3rd AD as an example of the negative image our military faces and needs to correct. We receive this type of communication too often. I often hear people at random in stores, on planes, at social gatherings, etc. who have completely lost faith, confidence, and trust in our government with the Pentagon often being the most singled out for derision. The reason I take this so personally is that my biological family who “placed me” to be raised away from them, are the most powerful secret and silent financiers and armaments dealers in the world and have been for a very long time. They did not want me to be stigmatized, and they did not want me to be accused of using their money for my education, business, etc. or being part of their milieu. I have never benefited from their enormous wealth. I love them, but I hate that they undoubtedly financed the lion share of unconventional weapons of mass destruction development through a complex financial web of banking and governmental associations that I suspect few comprehend or have knowledge. Although, they have voiced their regrets to me, one has to understand that in their type of world there are no loyalties to countries, ideologies, governments, or noble paradigms. Only profit rules, and since they always back adversaries at every level, they never lose financial power. Therefore, I feel personally responsible for every soldier that has suffered or lost his/her life in war. Because I am an American, my loyalty is to the United States. I believe that I can act as a creative bridge in this most serious arena to aid the Department of Defense concerning the issues and ramifications discussed in this letter.

Respectfully and with regards,

Nancy L. Nicolson, Ph.D.

Chief Executive Officer

Chairman of the Board

International Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.

Molecular Hyperbaric Medicine, Inc.

January 11, 2001

LTG James B. Peake

The Surgeon General of the Army

5109 Leeseburg Pike

Falls Church, VA 22041-3258

Dear General Peake;

We are in receipt of the Agenda for the 26 Feb 2001 AIBS Peer Review of Diagnostic Testing for Mycoplasma in Symptomatic Gulf War Veterans from the AIBS Sterling Office. As is common in U.S. Government (NIH, NSF, etc.) peer review panels, we respectfully request a list of the peer review panel and their credentials. Peer review policies in place at NIH and other U.S. Government agencies involved in peer review of scientific research are composed of mutually approved professionals who are without conflict of interest. We want to make sure that these standards are upheld in the upcoming review. For example, we are not aware of Dr. John Pugh’s expertise in this area, and he is apparently the chairman of the review panel.

We also feel that it is essential to include senior scientific statesmen who are also chromatin experts. Our rationale for this is that Nucleoprotein Gene Tracking is a method based on chromatin expertise.

There have been some negative interactions between some of the participants of the DoD sponsored project, and we have strongly questioned the lack of quality in the samples provided by the Walter Reed Army Medical Center and SRA Life Sciences, Inc. Thus it is imperative that this will be a fair and balanced review by unbiased individuals. We also request that mutually agreed upon observers from the Pentagon’s C4 Directorate and a national security advisor to the U.S. Government be included on the review panel.

Sincerely,

Nancy L. Nicolson, Ph.D.

Chief Executive Officer

Chairman of the Board

International Molecular Diagnostics, Inc.

Molecular Hyperbaric Medicine, In<html xmlns:v="urn:schemas-microsoft-com:vml"

MYCOPLASMA

The Linking Pathogen in Neurosystemic Diseases

Several strains of mycoplasma have been “engineered” to become more dangerous. They are now being blamed for AIDS, cancer, CFS, MS, CJD and other neurosystemic diseases.

Extracted from Nexus Magazine, Volume 8, Number 5 (August-September 2001)

PO Box 30, Mapleton Qld 4560 Australia. editor@nexusmagazine.com

Telephone: +61 (0)7 5442 9280; Fax: +61 (0)7 5442 9381

http://www.nexusmagazine.com/articles/mycoplasma.html

© by Donald W. Scott, MA, MSc © 2001

President

The Common Cause

Medical Research Foundation

190 Mountain Street, Suite 405

Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3B 4G2

Tel/fax: +1 (705) 670 0180

PATHOGENIC MYCOPLASMA

A Common Disease Agent Weaponised

There are 200 species of Mycoplasma. Most are innocuous and do no harm; only four or five are pathogenic. Mycoplasma fermentans (incognitus strain) probably comes from the nucleus of the Brucella bacterium. This disease agent is not a bacterium and not a virus; it is a mutated form of the Brucella bacterium, combined with a visna virus, from which the mycoplasma is extracted.

The pathogenic Mycoplasma used to be very innocuous, but biological warfare research conducted between 1942 and the present time has resulted in the creation of more deadly and infectious forms of Mycoplasma. Researchers extracted this mycoplasma from the Brucella bacterium and actually reduced the disease to a crystalline form. They “weaponised” it and tested it on an unsuspecting public in North America.

Dr Maurice Hilleman, chief virologist for the pharmaceutical company Merck Sharp & Dohme, stated that this disease agent is now carried by everybody in North America and possibly most people throughout the world.

Despite reporting flaws, there has clearly been an increased incidence of all the neuro/systemic degenerative diseases since World War II and especially since the 1970s with the arrival of previously unheard-of diseases like chronic fatigue syndrome and AIDS.

According to Dr Shyh-Ching Lo, senior researcher at The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and one of America’s top mycoplasma researchers, this disease agent causes many illnesses including AIDS, cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome, Crohn’s colitis, Type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Wegener’s disease and collagen-vascular diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s.

Dr Charles Engel, who is with the US National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, stated the following at an NIH meeting on February 7, 2000: “I am now of the view that the probable cause of chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia is the mycoplasma…”

I have all the official documents to prove that mycoplasma is the disease agent in chronic fatigue syndrome/fibromyalgia as well as in AIDS, multiple sclerosis and many other illnesses. Of these, 80% are US or Canadian official government documents, and 20% are articles from peer-reviewed journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association, New England Journal of Medicine and the Canadian Medical Association Journal. The journal articles and government documents complement each other.

How the Mycoplasma Works

The mycoplasma acts by entering into the individual cells of the body, depending upon your genetic predisposition.

You may develop neurological diseases if the pathogen destroys certain cells in your brain, or you may develop Crohn’s colitis if the pathogen invades and destroys cells in the lower bowel.

Once the mycoplasma gets into the cell, it can lie there doing nothing sometimes for 10, 20 or 30 years, but if a trauma occurs like an accident or a vaccination that doesn’t take, the mycoplasma can become triggered.

Because it is only the DNA particle of the bacterium, it doesn’t have any organelles to process its own nutrients, so it grows by uptaking pre-formed sterols from its host cell and it literally kills the cell; the cell ruptures and what is left gets dumped into the bloodstream.

II – CREATION OF THE MYCOPLASMA

A Laboratory-Made Disease Agent

Many doctors don’t know about this mycoplasma disease agent because it was developed by the US military in biological warfare experimentation and it was not made public. This pathogen was patented by the United States military and Dr Shyh-Ching Lo. I have a copy of the documented patent from the US Patent Office.

All the countries at war were experimenting with biological weapons. In 1942, the governments of the United States, Canada and Britain entered into a secret agreement to create two types of biological weapons (one that would kill, and one that was disabling) for use in the war against Germany and Japan, who were also developing biological weapons. While they researched a number of disease pathogens, they primarily focused on the Brucella bacterium and began to weaponise it.

From its inception, the biowarfare program was characterised by continuing in-depth review and participation by the most eminent scientists, medical consultants, industrial experts and government officials, and it was classified Top Secret.

The US Public Health Service also closely followed the progress of biological warfare research and development from the very start of the program, and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States were working with the military in weaponising these diseases. These are diseases that have existed for thousands of years, but they have been weaponised–which means they’ve been made more contagious and more effective. And they are spreading.

The Special Virus Cancer Program, created by the CIA and NIH to develop a deadly pathogen for which humanity had no natural immunity (AIDS), was disguised as a war on cancer but was actually part of MKNAOMI.2 Many members of the Senate and House of Representatives do not know what has been going on. For example, the US Senate Committee on Government Reform had searched the archives in Washington and other places for the document titled “The Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report No. 8”, and couldn’t find it. Somehow they heard I had it, called me and asked me to mail it to them. Imagine: a retired schoolteacher being called by the United States Senate and asked for one of their secret documents! The US Senate, through the Government Reform Committee, is trying to stop this type of government research.

Crystalline Brucella

The title page of a genuine US Senate Study, declassified on February 24, 1977, shows that George Merck, of the pharmaceutical company, Merck Sharp & Dohme (which now makes cures for diseases that at one time it created), reported in 1946 to the US Secretary of War that his researchers had managed “for the first time” to “isolate the disease agent in crystalline form”.3

They had produced a crystalline bacterial toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium. The bacterial toxin could be removed in crystalline form and stored, transported and deployed without deteriorating. It could be delivered by other vectors such as insects, aerosol or the food chain (in nature it is delivered within the bacterium). But the factor that is working in the Brucella is the mycoplasma.

Brucella is a disease agent that doesn’t kill people; it disables them. But, according to Dr Donald MacArthur of the Pentagon, appearing before a congressional committee in 1969, 4 researchers found that if they had mycoplasma at a certain strength–actually, 10 to the 10th power (1010)–it would develop into AIDS, and the person would die from it within a reasonable period of time because it could bypass the natural human defences. If the strength was 108, the person would manifest with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. If it was 107, they would present as wasting; they wouldn’t die and they wouldn’t be disabled, but they would not be very interested in life; they would waste away.

Most of us have never heard of the disease brucellosis because it largely disappeared when they began pasteurising milk, which was the carrier. One salt shaker of the pure disease agent in a crystalline form could sicken the entire population of Canada. It is absolutely deadly, not so much in terms of killing the body but disabling it.

Because the crystalline disease agent goes into solution in the blood, ordinary blood and tissue tests will not reveal its presence. The mycoplasma will only crystallise at 8.1 pH, and the blood has a pH of 7.4 pH. So the doctor thinks your complaint is “all in your head”.

Crystalline Brucella and Multiple Sclerosis

In 1998 in Rochester, New York, I met a former military man, PFC Donald Bentley, who gave me a document and told me: “I was in the US Army, and I was trained in bacteriological warfare. We were handling a bomb filled with brucellosis, only it wasn’t brucellosis; it was a Brucella toxin in crystalline form. We were spraying it on the Chinese and North Koreans.”

He showed me his certificate listing his training in chemical, biological and radiological warfare. Then he showed me 16 pages of documents given to him by the US military when he was discharged from the service. They linked brucellosis with multiple sclerosis, and stated in one section: “Veterans with multiple sclerosis, a kind of creeping paralysis developing to a degree of 10% or more disability within two years after separation from active service, may be presumed to be service-connected for disability compensation. Compensation is payable to eligible veterans whose disabilities are due to service.” In other words: “If you become ill with multiple sclerosis, it is because you were handling this Brucella, and we will give you a pension. Don’t go raising any fuss about it.” In these documents, the government of the United States revealed evidence of the cause of multiple sclerosis, but they didn’t make it known to the public–or to your doctor.

In a 1949 report, Drs Kyger and Haden suggested “the possibility that multiple sclerosis might be a central nervous system manifestation of chronic brucellosis”. Testing approximately 113 MS patients, they found that almost 95% also tested positive for Brucella.5 We have a document from a medical journal, which concludes that one out of 500 people who had brucellosis would develop what they call neurobrucellosis; in other words, brucellosis in the brain, where the Brucella settles in the lateral ventricles–where the disease multiple sclerosis is basically located.6

Contamination of Camp Detrick Lab Workers

A 1948 New England Journal of Medicine report titled “Acute Brucellosis Among Laboratory Workers” shows us how actively dangerous this agent is.7 The laboratory workers were from Camp Detrick, Frederick, Maryland, where they were developing biological weapons. Even though these workers had been vaccinated, wore rubberised suits and masks and worked through holes in the compartment, many of them came down with this awful disease because it is so absolutely and terrifyingly infectious.

The article was written by Lt Calderone Howell, Marine Corps, Captain Edward Miller, Marine Corps, Lt Emily Kelly, United States Naval Reserve, and Captain Henry Bookman. They were all military personnel engaged in making the disease agent Brucella into a more effective biological weapon.

III – COVERT TESTING OF MYCOPLASMA

Testing the Dispersal Methods

Documented evidence proves that the biological weapons they were developing were tested on the public in various communities without their knowledge or consent.

The government knew that crystalline Brucella would cause disease in humans. Now they needed to determine how it would spread and the best way to disperse it. They tested dispersal methods for Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah, in June and September 1952. Probably, 100% of us now are infected with Brucella suis and Brucella melitensis.8

Another government document recommended the genesis of open-air vulnerability tests and covert research and development programs to be conducted by the Army and supported by the Central Intelligence Agency.

At that time, the Government of Canada was asked by the US Government to cooperate in testing weaponised Brucella, and Canada cooperated fully with the United States. The US Government wanted to determine whether mosquitoes would carry the disease and also if the air would carry it. A government report stated that “open-air testing of infectious biological agents is considered essential to an ultimate understanding of biological warfare potentialities because of the many unknown factors affecting the degradation of micro-organisms in the atmosphere”.9

Testing via Mosquito Vector in Punta Gorda, Florida

A report from The New England Journal of Medicine reveals that one of the first outbreaks of chronic fatigue syndrome was in Punta Gorda, Florida, back in 1957.10 It was a strange coincidence that a week before these people came down with chronic fatigue syndrome, there was a huge influx of mosquitoes.

The National Institutes of Health claimed that the mosquitoes came from a forest fire 30 miles away. The truth is that those mosquitoes were infected in Canada by Dr Guilford B. Reed at Queen’s University. They were bred in Belleville, Ontario, and taken down to Punta Gorda and released there.

Within a week, the first five cases ever of chronic fatigue syndrome were reported to the local clinic in Punta Gorda. The cases kept coming until finally 450 people were ill with the disease.

Testing via Mosquito Vector in Ontario

The Government of Canada had established the Dominion Parasite Laboratory in Belleville, Ontario, where it raised 100 million mosquitoes a month. These were shipped to Queen’s University and certain other facilities to be infected with this crystalline disease agent. The mosquitoes were then let loose in certain communities in the middle of the night, so that the researchers could determine how many people would become ill with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia, which was the first disease to show.

One of the communities they tested it on was the St Lawrence Seaway valley, all the way from Kingston to Cornwall, in 1984. They let out hundreds of millions of infected mosquitoes. Over 700 people in the next four or five weeks developed myalgic encephalomyelitis, or chronic fatigue syndrome.

IV – COVERT TESTING OF OTHER DISEASE AGENTS

Mad Cow Disease/Kuru/CJD in the Fore Tribe

Before and during World War II, at the infamous Camp 731 in Manchuria, the Japanese military contaminated prisoners of war with certain disease agents.

They also established a research camp in New Guinea in 1942. There they experimented upon the Fore Indian tribe and inoculated them with a minced-up version of the brains of diseased sheep containing the visna virus which causes “mad cow disease” or Creutzfeldt&endash;Jakob disease.

About five or six years later, after the Japanese had been driven out, the poor people of the Fore tribe developed what they called kuru, which was their word for “wasting”, and they began to shake, lose their appetites and die. The autopsies revealed that their brains had literally turned to mush. They had contracted “mad cow disease” from the Japanese experiments.

When World War II ended, Dr Ishii Shiro–the medical doctor who was commissioned as a General in the Japanese Army so he could take command of Japan’s biological warfare development, testing and deployment–was captured. He was given the choice of a job with the United States Army or execution as a war criminal. Not surprisingly, Dr Ishii Shiro chose to work with the US military to demonstrate how the Japanese had created mad cow disease in the Fore Indian tribe.

In 1957, when the disease was beginning to blossom in full among the Fore people, Dr Carleton Gajdusek of the US National Institutes of Health headed to New Guinea to determine how the minced-up brains of the visna-infected sheep affected them. He spent a couple of years there, studying the Fore people, and wrote an extensive report. He won the Nobel Prize for “discovering” kuru disease in the Fore tribe.

Testing Carcinogens over Winnipeg, Manitoba

In 1953, the US Government asked the Canadian Government if it could test a chemical over the city of Winnipeg. It was a big city with 500,000 people, miles from anywhere. The American military sprayed this carcinogenic chemical in a 1,000%-attenuated form, which they said would be so watered down that nobody would get very sick; however, if people came to clinics with a sniffle, a sore throat or ringing in their ears, the researchers would be able to determine what percentage would have developed cancer if the chemical had been used at full strength.

We located evidence that the Americans had indeed tested this carcinogenic chemical–zinc cadmium sulphide–over Winnipeg in 1953. We wrote to the Government of Canada, explaining that we had solid evidence of the spraying and asking that we be informed as to how high up in the government the request for permission to spray had gone. We did not receive a reply.

Shortly after, the Pentagon held a press conference on May 14, 1997, where they admitted what they had done. Robert Russo, writing for the Toronto Star11 from Washington, DC, reported the Pentagon’s admission that in 1953 it had obtained permission from the Canadian Government to fly over the city of Winnipeg and spray out this chemical–which sifted down on kids going to school, housewives hanging out their laundry and people going to work. US Army planes and trucks released the chemical 36 times between July and August 1953. The Pentagon got its statistics, which indicated that if the chemical released had been full strength, approximately a third of the population of Winnipeg would have developed cancers over the next five years.

One professor, Dr Hugh Fudenberg, MD, twice nominated for the Nobel Prize, wrote a magazine article stating that the Pentagon came clean on this because two researchers in Sudbury, Ontario–Don Scott and his son, Bill Scott–had been revealing this to the public. However, the legwork was done by other researchers!

The US Army actually conducted a series of simulated germ warfare tests over Winnipeg. The Pentagon lied about the tests to the mayor, saying that they were testing a chemical fog over the city, which would protect Winnipeg in the event of a nuclear attack.

A report commissioned by US Congress, chaired by Dr Rogene Henderson, lists 32 American towns and cities used as test sites as well.

V – BRUCELLA MYCOPLASMA AND DISEASE

AIDS

The AIDS pathogen was created out of a Brucella bacterium mutated with a visna virus; then the toxin was removed as a DNA particle called a mycoplasma. They used the same mycoplasma to develop disabling diseases like MS, Crohn’s colitis, Lyme disease, etc.

In the previously mentioned US congressional document of a meeting held on June 9, 1969,12 the Pentagon delivered a report to Congress about biological weapons. The Pentagon stated: “We are continuing to develop disabling weapons.” Dr MacArthur, who was in charge of the research, said: “We are developing a new lethal weapon, a synthetic biological agent that does not naturally exist, and for which no natural immunity could have been acquired.”

Think about it. If you have a deficiency of acquired immunity, you have an acquired immunity deficiency. Plain as that. AIDS.

In laboratories throughout the United States and in a certain number in Canada including at the University of Alberta, the US Government provided the leadership for the development of AIDS for the purpose of population control. After the scientists had perfected it, the government sent medical teams from the Centers for Disease Control–under the direction of Dr Donald A. Henderson, their investigator into the 1957 chronic fatigue epidemic in Punta Gorda–during 1969 to 1971 to Africa and some countries such as India, Nepal and Pakistan where they thought the population was becoming too large.13 They gave them all a free vaccination against smallpox; but five years after receiving this vaccination, 60% of those inoculated were suffering from AIDS. They tried to blame it on a monkey, which is nonsense.

A professor at the University of Arkansas made the claim that while studying the tissues of a dead chimpanzee she found traces of HIV. The chimpanzee that she had tested was born in the United States 23 years earlier. It had lived its entire life in a US military laboratory where it was used as an experimental animal in the development of these diseases. When it died, its body was shipped to a storage place where it was deep-frozen and stored in case they wanted to analyse it later. Then they decided that they didn’t have enough space for it, so they said, “Anybody want this dead chimpanzee?” and this researcher from Arkansas said: “Yes. Send it down to the University of Arkansas. We are happy to get anything that we can get.” They shipped it down and she found HIV in it. That virus was acquired by that chimpanzee in the laboratories where it was tested.14

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/ Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

Chronic fatigue syndrome is more accurately called myalgic encephalomyelitis. The chronic fatigue syndrome nomenclature was given by the US National Institutes of Health because it wanted to downgrade and belittle the disease.

An MRI scan of the brain of a teenage girl with chronic fatigue syndrome displayed a great many scars or punctate lesions in the left frontal lobe area where portions of the brain had literally dissolved and been replaced by scar tissue. This caused cognitive impairment, memory impairment, etc. And what was the cause of the scarring? The mycoplasma. So there is very concrete physical evidence of these tragic diseases, even though doctors continue to say they don’t know where it comes from or what they can do about it.

Many people with chronic fatigue syndrome, myalgic encephalo-myelitis and fibromyalgia who apply to the Canada Pensions Plan Review Tribunal will be turned down because they cannot prove that they are ill. During 1999 I conducted several appeals to Canada Pensions and the Workers Compensation Board (WCB, now the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board) on behalf of people who have been turned down. I provided documented evidence of these illnesses, and these people were all granted their pensions on the basis of the evidence that I provided.

In March 1999, for example, I appealed to the WCB on behalf of a lady with fibromyalgia who had been denied her pension back in 1993. The vice-chairman of the board came to Sudbury to hear the appeal, and I showed him a number of documents which proved that this lady was physically ill with fibromyalgia. It was a disease that caused physical damage, and the disease agent was a mycoplasma. The guy listened for three hours, and then he said to me: “Mr Scott, how is it I have never heard of any of this before? I said: “We brought a top authority in this area into Sudbury to speak on this subject and not a single solitary doctor came to that presentation.”

VI – TESTING FOR MYCOPLASMA IN YOUR BODY

Polymerase Chain Reaction Test

Information is not generally available about this agent because, first of all, the mycoplasma is such a minutely small disease agent. A hundred years ago, certain medical theoreticians conceived that there must be a form of disease agent smaller than bacteria and viruses. This pathogenic organism, the mycoplasma, is so minute that normal blood and tissue tests will not reveal its presence as the source of the disease.

Your doctor may diagnose you with Alzheimer’s disease, and he will say: “Golly, we don’t know where Alzheimer’s comes from. All we know is that your brain begins to deteriorate, cells rupture, the myelin sheath around the nerves dissolves, and so on.” Or if you have chronic fatigue syndrome, the doctor will not be able to find any cause for your illness with ordinary blood and tissue tests.

This mycoplasma couldn’t be detected until about 30 years ago when the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was developed, in which a sample of your blood is examined and damaged particles are removed and subjected to a polymerase chain reaction. This causes the DNA in the particles to break down. The particles are then placed in a nutrient, which causes the DNA to grow back into its original form. If enough of the substance is produced, the form can be recognised, so it can be determined whether Brucella or another kind of agent is behind that particular mycoplasma.

Blood Test

If you or anybody in your family has myalgic encephalomyelitis, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer’s, you can send a blood sample to Dr Les Simpson in New Zealand for testing.

If you are ill with these diseases, your red blood cells will not be normal doughnut-shaped blood cells capable of being compressed and squeezed through the capillaries, but will swell up like cherry-filled doughnuts which cannot be compressed. The blood cells become enlarged and distended because the only way the mycoplasma can exist is by uptaking pre-formed sterols from the host cell. One of the best sources of pre-formed sterols is cholesterol, and cholesterol is what gives your blood cells flexibility. If the cholesterol is taken out by the mycoplasma, the red blood cell swells up and doesn’t go through, and the person begins to feel all the aches and pains and all the damage it causes to the brain, the heart, the stomach, the feet and the whole body because blood and oxygen are cut off.

And that is why people with fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome have such a terrible time. When the blood is cut off from the brain, punctate lesions appear because those parts of the brain die. The mycoplasma will get into portions of the heart muscle, especially the left ventricle, and those cells will die. Certain people have cells in the lateral ventricles of the brain that have a genetic predisposition to admit the mycoplasma, and this causes the lateral ventricles to deteriorate and die. This leads to multiple sclerosis, which will progress until these people are totally disabled; frequently, they die prematurely. The mycoplasma will get into the lower bowel, parts of which will die, thus causing colitis. All of these diseases are caused by the degenerating properties of the mycoplasma.

In early 2000, a gentleman in Sudbury phoned me and told me he had fibromyalgia. He applied for a pension and was turned down because his doctor said it was all in his head and there was no external evidence. I gave him the proper form and a vial, and he sent his blood to Dr Simpson to be tested. He did this with his family doctor’s approval, and the results from Dr Simpson showed that only 4% of his red blood cells were functioning normally and carrying the appropriate amount of oxygen to his poor body, whereas 83% were distended, enlarged and hardened, and wouldn’t go through the capillaries without an awful lot of pressure and trouble. This is the physical evidence of the damage that is done.

ECG Test

You can also ask your doctor to give you a 24-hour Holter ECG. You know, of course, that an electrocardiogram is a measure of your heartbeat and shows what is going on in the right ventricle, the left ventricle and so on. Tests show that 100% of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia have an irregular heartbeat. At various periods during the 24 hours, the heart, instead of working happily away going “bump-BUMP, bump-BUMP”, every now and again goes “buhbuhbuhbuhbuhbuhbuhbuhbuh”. The T-wave (the waves are called P, Q, R, S and T) is normally a peak, and then the wave levels off and starts with the P-wave again. In chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia patients, the T-wave flattens off, or actually inverts. That means the blood in the left ventricle is not being squeezed up through the aorta and around through the body.

My client from Sudbury had this test done and, lo and behold, the results stated: “The shape of T and S-T suggests left ventricle strain pattern, although voltage and so on is normal.” The doctor had no clue as to why the T-wave was not working properly. I analysed the report of this patient who had been turned down by Canada Pensions and sent it back to them. They wrote back, saying: “It looks like we may have made a mistake. We are going to give you a hearing and you can explain this to us in more detail.”

So it is not all in your imagination. There is actual physical damage to the heart. The left ventricle muscles do show scarring. That is why many people are diagnosed with a heart condition when they first develop fibromyalgia, but it’s only one of several problems because the mycoplasma can do all kinds of damage.

Blood Volume Test

You can also ask your doctor for a blood volume test. Every human being requires a certain amount of blood per pound of body weight, and it has been observed that people with fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis and other illnesses do not have the normal blood volume their body needs to function properly. Doctors aren’t normally aware of this.

This test measures the amount of blood in the human body by taking out 5 cc, putting a tracer in it and then putting it back into the body. One hour later, take out 5 cc again and look for the tracer. The thicker the blood and the lower the blood volume, the more tracer you will find.

The analysis of one of my clients stated: “This patient was referred for red cell mass study. The red cell volume is 16.9 ml per kg of body weight. The normal range is 25 to 35 ml per kg. This guy has 36% less blood in his body than the body needs to function.” And the doctor hadn’t even known the test existed.

If you lost 36% of your blood in an accident, do you think your doctor would tell you that you are alright and should just take up line dancing and get over it? They would rush you to the nearest hospital and start transfusing you with blood. These tragic people with these awful diseases are functioning with anywhere from 7% to 50% less blood than their body needs to function.

VII – UNDOING THE DAMAGE

The body undoes the damage itself. The scarring in the brain of people with chronic fatigue and fibromyalgia will be repaired. There is cellular repair going on all the time. But the mycoplasma has moved on to the next cell.

In the early stages of a disease, doxycycline may reverse that disease process. It is one of the tetracycline antibiotics, but it is not bactericidal; it is bacteriostatic–it stops the growth of the mycoplasma. And if the mycoplasma growth can be stopped for long enough, then the immune system takes over.

Doxycycline treatment is discussed in a paper by mycoplasma expert Professor Garth Nicholson, PhD, of the Institute for Molecular Medicine.15 Dr Nicholson is involved in a US$8-million mycoplasma research program funded by the US military and headed by Dr Charles Engel of the NIH. The program is studying Gulf War veterans, 450 of them, because there is evidence to suggest that Gulf War syndrome is another illness (or set of illnesses) caused by mycoplasma.

Endnotes:

1. “Pathogenic Mycoplasma”, US Patent No. 5,242,820, issued September 7, 1993. Dr Lo is listed as the “Inventor” and the American Registry of Pathology, Washington, DC, is listed as the “Assignee”.

2. “Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report No. 8”, prepared by the National Cancer Institute, Viral Oncology, Etiology Area, July 1971, submitted to NIH Annual Report in May 1971 and updated July 1971.

3. US Senate, Ninety-fifth Congress, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, Biological Testing Involving Human Subjects by the Department of Defense, 1977; released as US Army Activities in the US Biological Warfare Programs, Volumes One and Two, 24 February 1977.

4. Dr Donald MacArthur, Pentagon, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970, Hearings before Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Ninety-First Congress, First Session, Monday June 9, 1969, pp 105-144, esp. pp. 114, 129.

5. Kyger, E. R. and Russell L. Haden, “Brucellosis and Multiple Sclerosis”, The American Journal of Medical Sciences 1949:689-693.

6. Colmonero et al., “Complications Associated with Brucella melitensis Infection: A Study of 530 Cases”, Medicine 1996;75(4).

7. Howell, Miller, Kelly and Bookman, “Acute Brucellosis Among Laboratory Workers”, New England Journal of Medicine 1948;236:741.

8. “Special Virus Cancer Program: Progress Report No. 8”, ibid., table 4, p. 135.

9. US Senate, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, March 8 and May 23, 1977, ibid.

10. New England Journal of Medicine, August 22, 1957, p. 362.

11. Toronto Star, May 15, 1997.

12. Dr Donald MacArthur, Pentagon, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1970, Hearings, Monday June 9, 1969, ibid., p. 129.

13. Henderson, Donald A., “Smallpox: Epitaph for a Killer”, National Geographic, December 1978, p. 804.

14. Blum, Deborah, The Monkey Wars, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.

15. Nicholson, G. L., “Doxycycline treatment and Desert Storm”, JAMA 1995;273:618-619.

Recommended Reading:

· Horowitz, Leonard, Emerging Viruses: Aids and Ebola, Tetrahedron Publishing, USA, 1996.

· Johnson, Hillary, Osler’s Web, Crown Publishers, New York, 1996.

· Scott, Donald W. and William L. C. Scott, The Brucellosis Triangle, The Chelmsford Publishers (Box 133, Stat. B., Sudbury, Ontario P3E 4N5), Canada, 1998 (US$21.95 + $3 s&h in US).

· Scott, Donald W. and William L. C. Scott, The Extremely Unfortunate Skull Valley Incident, The Chelmsford Publishers, Canada, 1996 (revised, extended edition available from mid-September 2001; US$16.00 pre-pub. price + US$3 s&h in US).

· The Journal of Degenerative Diseases (Donald W. Scott, Editor), The Common Cause Medical Research Foundation (Box 133, Stat B., Sudbury, Ontario, P3E 4N5), Canada (quarterly journal; annual subscription: US$25.00 in USA, $30 foreign).

Additional Contacts:

· Ms Jennie Burke, Australian Biologics, Level 6, 383 Pitt Street, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia tel +61 (0)2 9283 0807, fax +61 (0)2 9283 0910. Australian Biologics does tests for mycoplasma.

· Consumer Health Organization of Canada, 1220 Sheppard Avenue East #412, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M2K 2S5, tel +1 (416) 490 0986, website http://www.consumerhealth.org/.

· Professor Garth Nicholson, PhD, Institute for Molecular Medicine, 15162 Triton Lane, Huntington Beach, CA, 92649-1401, USA, tel +1 (714) 903 2900.

· Dr Les Simpson, Red Blood Cell Research Ltd, 31 Bath Street, Dunedin, 9001, New Zealand, tel +64 (0)3 471 8540, email rbc.research.limited@xtra.co.nz. (Note: Dr Simpson directs his study to red cell shape analysis, not the mycoplasma hypothesis.)

· The Mycoplasma Registry for Gulf War Illness, S. & L. Dudley, 303 47th St, J-10 San Diego, CA 92102-5961, tel/fax +1 (619) 266 1116, fax (619) 266 1116, email mycoreg@juno.com.

About the Author:

Donald Scott, MA, MSc, is a retired high school teacher and university professor. He is also a veteran of WWII and was awarded the North Atlantic Star, the Burma Star with Clasp, the 1939-1945 Volunteer Service Medal and the Victory Medal. He is currently President of The Common Cause Medical Research Foundation, a not-for-profit organisation devoted to research into neurosystemic degenerative diseases. He is also Adjunct Professor with the Institute for Molecular Medicine and he produces and edits the Journal of Degenerative Diseases. He has extensively researched neurosystemic degenerative diseases over the past five years and has authored many documents on the relationship between degenerative diseases and a pathogenic mycoplasma called Mycoplasma fermentans. His research is based upon solid government evidence.

Mycoplasma

n. Any of numerous parasitic, pathogenic microorganisms of the genus Mycoplasma that lack a true cell wall, are gram-negative, and need sterols such as cholesterol for growth. In humans, one species is a primary cause of nonbacterial pneumonia. Also called pleuropneumonia-like organism.

In general, Blacks throughout the world give credibility to a thing when a White person has given their blessings to it. All the same, there are those of us who are the watchers and tell you as it is long before the “great White savior” bring his or her blessings within your mind. We also have those Blacks who ignorantly reject things just for the hell of “fighting the power that be”, knowing little about what they fight against and when it is appropriate to use tact and diplomacy. When you know the victory is already yours, it is easier to use diplomacy. It is without a doubt that African people have been targeted for extermination and this includes African Americans. Yes, extermination, just as you would exterminate termites. Another way of saying this is, EXTINCTION.

Those Blacks who have assimilated in their minds and moved on to physical assimilation most often think Blacks have become better in America. However, here is a short snippet from the New York Times:

Nicole Bengiveno/The New York Times

Janice Johnson, a social worker, is seated at left next to Eunice Brown. Ms. Brown’s mother stands at right.

In Turnabout, Infant Deaths Climb in South

HOLLANDALE, Miss. — For decades, Mississippi and neighboring states with large black populations and expanses of enduring poverty made steady progress in reducing infant death. But, in what health experts call an ominous portent, progress has stalled and in recent years the death rate has risen in Mississippi and several other states……. The setbacks have raised questions about the impact of cuts in welfare and Medicaid and of poor access to doctors, and, many doctors say, the growing epidemics of obesity, diabetes and hypertension among potential mothers, some of whom tip the scales here at 300 to 400 pounds.

http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/22/health/22infant.html?_r=1&hp=&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1177254335-T8B33omAVLHerIq50eWzkQ

The solution is the CART Vision/Objectives, not more American welfare in America and Aid in Africa. Our people have been given AIDS for aid. The food has even poisoned millions causing excessive obesity, diabetes and other ailments.

Biggest Problem Demands Biggest Attention

It is important to be able to see and respond to the unseen. Police brutality is more often that which is seen. Blacks in America place a great deal of attention on police brutality targeted at Blacks. However, little attention has been placed on how White America and elements of Europe are killing far more Blacks than police could ever kill. Attention must be placed on the politicians, corporate and business leaders who long ago decreed that a free African shall be a dead African.

Merck At Center of Forced HPV Vaccination of All Girls

These critical “Special Virus Cancer Program” documents, that must be brought to world attention, include the National Institute of Health contracts numbered NIH-71-2025 and NIH-71-2059, to Litton Bionetics and the Merck pharmaceutical company. U.S. Congressional Records show both of these companies were linked, during the 1960s and early 1970s, to each other as well as to biological weapons programs administered by the CIA and U.S. military contractors under National Security Agency oversight. Bionetics employed the world’s leading primate cancer virus investigating team. The viruses they manufactured en masse at that time, using comparatively crude, by today’s standards, laboratory methods, included viruses that were functionally and descriptively identical to HIV. The evidence for this seemingly outrageous claim is astonishingly certain.

Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D, M.A., M.P.H.

This mass murder is accomplished via HIV/AIDS. Some of you thought and assumed all of those “brothers” coming out of prison were simply “down low brothers”. You should think again. They, like rats in a laboratory, are introduced to HIV in prisons via what they eat, vaccines and it is even possible to contract it via the centralized controlled air breathed within prisons. What about the White prisoners?

Before I answer that, take a look at what Dr. Maurice Hilleman had to say about what you have been inundated with in some of these CART Analysis.

Dr. Maurice Hilleman

Died in April 2005

Much of modern preventive medicine is based on his work, and his contributions have helped extend human life expectancy and improve the economies of many countries.

….. That these vaccine related studies likely triggered AIDS is further implied by Merck’s leading vaccine expert, Dr. Maurice Hilleman, President Clinton’s 1998 Sabin Gold Medal of Honor awardee. Dr. Hilleman went on record, during a 1986 interview, that he brought the AIDS virus into North America in contaminated monkeys destined for vaccine research and testing at Merck. This admission alone, deserves a US Congressional, United Nations, if not World Court inquiry…..

We are talking about an “ethnic specific weapon”, an ethnic bomb. Recently, someone asked me, with the birthrate of Mexicans being so high and with so many arriving across the American southern border by the millions, why haven’t they been targeted for HIV? The reason is because they are too closely related to many of the Whites genetically. For example, there are two main groups in Mexico, the Criollos (pure White Spanish “blood”), and the Mestizos (of mixed Spanish “blood”). More than 90 percent of the native people of Mexico were exterminated by the Spanish, French and other minor European groups. The 10 percent that remained mixed with the replacement population of Europeans. The Mexican genome is too closely related to most Europeans and would endanger too many Whites if HIV was targeted at them.

Many White prisoners would not be affected by certain foods, vaccines and other vectors used to deliver this “mycoplasm” that is decimating Blacks all around the world while “the band played on”.

Dr. Leonard Horowitz’s October 2007 Letter to South African President, Thabo Mbeki

…….Despite the largely false and misleading arguments that the gene sequences of Bionetics’s bioengineered retroviruses differed substantially from HIV-1 and HIV-2, an argument that Dr. Robert Gallo gave me which is echoed by leading AIDS researchers today, it is clear a virtual “smoking gun” exists with these contracts that show the unique immune-suppression/leukemia/lymphoma/sarcoma cancer complex, arguably non-existent on plant earth prior to the first cases of HIV/AIDS seen around 1978, was precisely what Dr. Gallo, leading the Bionetics team for the National Cancer Institute, spent most of his time and money researching, developing, and testing during the late 1960s and early 1970s. This was precisely timed for the first simultaneous HIV/AIDS outbreaks on two far removed continents in two demographically distinct, and unique, populations…..

Leonard G. Horowitz, D.M.D, M.A., M.P.H.

http://www.tetrahedron.org/news/nr20001019.html

Notice that Dr. Horowitz stated that this killer virus was, reportedly, first seen in 1978. This was 8 years after American congressional representatives discussed the funding and creation of this killer virus as discussed in Public Law 91-171.

How could Bayer’s keep the HIV/AIDS virus alive in Aspirins that it intentionally sold to hemophiliacs? Read the following:

Keeping Their Killer Alive

They had produced a crystalline bacterial toxin extracted from the Brucella bacterium. The bacterial toxin could be removed in crystalline form and stored, transported and deployed without deteriorating. It could be delivered by other vectors such as insects, aerosol or the food chain (in nature it is delivered within the bacterium). But the factor that is working in the Brucella is the mycoplasma.

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About homelessholocaust

Tijuana Hobo , Hebrew Hobo Railroad Rabbi, The Truth Teller Tell True Truth Truthfully. If the Truth is Repugnant to you, You are a Reagan Cultist. Ronald Reagan was Taught by L. Ron Hubbard, Reagan & Hubbard FOUNDED THE SCIENCE FICTION MIND FUCKING GAME- SCIENTOLOGY- then REAGAN USED NERO LINGUIST PROGRAMMING as PRESIDENT to MURDER THE MINDS of AMERICANS!
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