The Texas Acid Trips-1967

by
Patrick “The Lama” Lundborg


According to most retrospectives, the Acid Test Graduation in San Francisco
October 1966 marked the last outward activity of Ken Kesey and his Merry
Pranksters, after 3 years of mayhem and enlightenment. Kesey was facing
legal charges following two arrests for marijuana possession, and internal
tensions within the Pranksters had been mounting. It seemed appropriate
anyway, as the psychedelic Bay Area scene the group had helped give birth to
was on the verge of its international breakthrough. In the eyes of many
local veterans the original SF scene was already showing signs of watering
down and commercialization. In 1967 much of the unique street culture would
be washed away in the wake of news magazine hysteria, the introduction of
hard drugs, and an influx of teenage runaways in overwhelming numbers.

At
least one final act of Pranksterism remained however, as material recently
come to light details the proceedings of an Acid Test at Rice University in
Houston, Texas as late as March 1967. This event took place during a hiatus
in Kesey’s legal affairs, and allowed him and the full band of Pranksters to
load up their “Further” bus for a journey along the same route as
the one famously undertaken in 1964. The Rice University Acid Test may well
have been the last one ever staged, and it has to my knowledge never been
described before. To understand the significance of this final
Prank, a bit of background may be necessary.


1. The
Further Trip


Cowboy
Neal at the wheel, heading for Never Never land

The first
notable manifestation of the Merry Pranksters was their 1964 coast-to-coast
bus tour. Prior to this, a circle of like-minded characters in the San
Francisco Bay Area had gathered around Kesey, who was a promising young
author of the acclaimed 1962 novel, “One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s
Nest”. After finishing his second novel “Sometimes A Great
Notion” Kesey was looking to expand his artistic endeavours outside the
world of literature. Based on his guinea pig experiences with psychedelic
drugs at the CIA-sponsored Veteran’s Hospital in Menlo Park, a new
philosophy and lifestyle emerged among Kesey’s friends and colleagues who
took part in similar LSD experiences. This new attitude cannot be summarized
in a few neat “-isms” and encyclopedia references, for as the
Pranksters warned: “if you label it THIS, then it can’t be THAT”.
Instead a few enigmatic phrases defined their lifestyle – “You’re
either on the bus or off the bus”; “Nothing lasts”;
“Never trust a Prankster”. Unconstrained by any agenda, they put
vast amounts of energy into whatever project they were working on, and with
Kesey as chief ideologist constantly tried to push into new realms of
experience.

Consequently
the acid-fuelled June 1964 cross-country trip with an old school bus,
painted in dayglo colors and christened “Further”, had no explicit
artistic purpose – ostensibly they were shooting a documentary while on the
way to New York City’s World Fair in time for the publication of Kesey’s
second novel – yet it was centered around certain unique principles. The LSD
sessions during the journey did not happen randomly, or constantly, but as
designated events during which certain Pranksters took LSD, while others
created the trip environment and documented the results through the array of
advanced equipment they had brought along on the bus, such as tape
recorders, 16mm movie cameras, internal and external speakers, intricately
rewired headphones and microphones. Recordings, broadcasts, feedbacks, tape
loops and tape delays were a constant part of their daily life. Apart from
the purpose of documentation, the hi-tech gear was used to create an
environment of aural/visual stimuli that would enhance the sense of
spontaneity, or Now, and help breaking through the barriers of limited
perception that the reasoning mind – and possibly society – had created for
itself.

At the
core of all this was a theory Kesey had picked up on, regarding the way the
human mind processes sense data. There is a lag of 1/30 second before the
central nervous system can respond to any type of data it receives. In other
words, everything we experience has already happened, and we are constantly
watching the movie of our lives, unable to affect it in any meaningful way.
This neuro-physiological fact took on a wider meaning for the Pranksters,
applied not only in terms of classic epistemology, but for personal
development, and for society at large. One of man’s main goals should be to
move the 1/30 barrier closer to Now, and the closer we get, the more real or
meaningful our actions become. Psychedelic drugs was one step in narrowing
the time lag, along with spontaneous performances and dialogues, and
essentially any type of seemingly irrational behavior and experience.
Furthermore, since everything was a “movie”, the ambition was to
keep it a Prankster Movie, bringing people into the movie rather than being
drawn into theirs. This was especially true when dealing with police
officers and other squares that the young Bay Area acid freaks encountered
on their journey through an America that was still trapped in the 1950s.

Along for
the 1964 bus trip, indeed the driver for much of the road, was beat-era
legend Neal Cassady, who recently had come out from a 2-year sentence at San
Quentin and looked up Kesey & the Pranksters after hearing about them.
Cassady, the role model for Jack Kerouac’s “Dean Moriarty”
character in “On the road”, seemed in many ways the perfect
incarnation of the Prankster’s ideas. Constantly in a “kinetic
trance”, Cassady always talked and was always in motion, rapping in an
endless stream of conciousness on many different things at once, bringing
them together in brilliant puns that listeners would decipher only
afterwards, and like all the Pranksters he seemed constantly upbeat and
pushing further. His presence helped elevate the bus trip into an archetypal
pioneer journey of the kind that occurs throughout American literature. The
American theme was important to the Pranksters, who always incorporated the
Stars and Stripes into their projects, and even dressed in clothes made from
flags, or in red-white-and-blue colors.


Rare local
newspaper clipping from the Springfield News, July 1964, 
announcing the return of the “Intrepid Travelers”

The
extraordinary events that occurred on and off the “Further” bus
are the subject of two books produced by the recently resurrected Merry
Pranksters. “On the bus” (1990), co-authored by leading Prankster
Ken Babbs (a k a “The Intrepid Traveller”) and Paul Perry, is an
entertaining collection of reminiscences and photographs from the 1964 bus
trip and the subsequent Acid Tests. Essentially the same events as in Tom
Wolfe’s famous semi-biography of Kesey’s group, “The Electric Kool-Aid
Acid Test” (1968), are covered but the visual documentation and first
person recollections from those involved add interesting aspects and clarify
two emblematic incidents on the journey; the encounter with Jack Kerouac in
New York, and the visit to Timothy Leary & Richard Alpert at Millbrook,
both of which had been given simplified accounts by Wolfe. Some of the
Pranksters who are only mentioned briefly in the earlier work are also
presented more in detail.

“The
Further Inquiry” by Ken Kesey himself (1990) is a richly illustrated
and highly original retelling of the first week or so on the bus, presented
as a mock trial for Neal Cassady’s spirit. Kesey had written about the
Prankster era in his “Garage Sale” anthology earlier (1973) but
not dealt with the “Further” trip so explicitly. The case before
the trial is the “Stark Naked” mishap, concerning a young woman
along for the bus ride who suffered a psychotic episode in Houston and had
to be briefly hospitalized. This appears to have troubled Kesey long after,
and the trial for Cassady’s spirit is also a trial for Kesey himself, and
the group’s laissez-faire attitude, in view of the consequences it had for
“Stark Naked”. The trial does however end in true Prankster
fashion, making the guilt question seem futile, and also signalling the
1990s resurrection of the group, which lead to a first-ever tour of Britain
featuring many of the original key members – Ken Babbs, Mountain Girl
(Carolyn Adams), Mike Hagen, Kesey himself – present, plus a younger cadre
of “second generation” Pranksters.

The
“Stark Naked” episode, along with almost everything else that
occured on the 1964 “Further” journey, was documented with the
Pranksters’ tape recorders and still and movie cameras. In line with their
“movie” paradigm, more than 40 hours of film were shot during the
bus trip for a vaguely defined documentary to be titled “The Merry
Pranksters Search For The Cool Place”. Long deemed uneditable, Kesey
and Ken Babbs in particular worked on putting the raw material together into
a comprehensible whole, and in 1999 the first part of the movie was made
available to the public on video. Some 50 minutes long, in color with sound
mostly in synch and occasional commentary from Kesey and Babbs, this unique
document covers the early part of the journey during which many of the most
infamous events occurred; the first LSD trip by an algae-covered lake in
Wikieup, Arizona; the Stark Naked episode before and within Houston, the
second LSD trip at a segregated beach in Louisiana during which the tripping
Pranksters mistakenly visited the colored section and narrowly escaped a
beating, encounters with unusual people and several policemen along the way,
etc. The second part, which covers a visit in Manhattan and some beautiful
footage from the Leary-Alpert scene at the Millbrook estate in rural New
York, is equally entertaining and was released on video only a few months
before Kesey’s death in 2002.

2. The
Acid Tests

The Acid
Tests are probably a lot easier to understand today than in the mid-1960s.
They could be described as mixed-media events with no formal distinction
between performers and audience, giving plenty of room for improvisation and
indeed encouraging the spontaneity of the moment above everything else.
Visitors to some of the more advanced manifestations of the 1990s
“rave” scene would find a lot to recognize, such as the close link
between the drug experience and the visual-aural stimuli present at the
Tests, and the extension of the events long into the morning hours. Although
the early Grateful Dead performed at many of the Tests these had nothing in
common with today’s mechanized rock concerts, and music was not among the
top priorities in the Acid Test arrangements.

Staged at
various west coast locations during a 12-month period beginning in late
1965, the Acid Tests mark a new chapter in the Prankster chronicles. Certain
key elements remain from the “Further” project, refined and
expanded. Advanced recording and broadcasting equipment were employed in
various ways, and unusual concepts were brought in to outline a structure.
Most of the participants from the bus trip remained with the Pranksters, but
several more joined around this time. One recruit was Berkeley UC student
Denise Kaufman, a k a “Mary Microgram”, later of legendary
all-female rock band Ace Of Cups. New ingredients include the use of
costumes and make-up, applied in an imaginative and unpredictable way, as
well as the presence of live rock music from a band of Bay Area musicians
named the Warlocks (soon to be renamed the Grateful Dead). Kesey drew more
and more of his ideas from pop culture, and Marvel superhero comics were
read with as much attention as James Joyce and Herman Melville. The
Pranksters also showed creativity in the use of materials and objects for
decoration, stringing huge billowing parachutes from the ceiling, covering
walls with silver foil, bringing in trampolines and ladders, using dayglo,
stroboscopes and blacklights everywhere. The concept of light shows, later
highly popular for rock concerts, grew out of inventions for Acid Tests,
though the Pranksters were freer in their visual imagination – such as
putting a live bug and a live spider on an overhead projector and having
them fight in huge scale on the wall.

The idea
of the Tests grew out of gatherings and parties that Kesey held at a remote
hunter’s cabin in La Honda after returning to the Bay Area from the 1964 bus
trip. The most remarkable happening was a 3-day party in August 1965 with
the Hell’s Angels, who the Pranksters managed to turn into a peaceful group
preoccupied with the LSD experience and the various aural/visual mind games
the woods had been decorated with. Allen Ginsberg who was present wrote a
poem about the experience, and the events are detailed in both Tom Wolfe’s
aforementioned book and Hunter Thompson’s “Hell’s Angels” (1966).
This achievement of the Pranksters has been described as a breakthrough of
the “real-life hangup” at which most artistic projects fail, due
to the gap between the artist and society at large. Kesey & his
associates had managed to bring the Hell’s Angels, one of the most
“real-life” phenomena there is, into their movie.

After some
early try-outs around the South Bay area the first major Acid Test was held
at Muir Beach north of San Francisco on December 11, 1965. Several hundred
people turned out for this event, which by accident had the law enforcement
looking in the wrong place and thus could proceed undisturbed throughout the
night. A psychedelic poster had been created for promotion, giving push to
the embryonic Bay Area poster art scene. Another important success factor
was the appearance of Owsley Stanley III, the underground LSD manufacturer
who joined forces with the Pranksters and helped distribute top-quality
lysergics for free at Muir Beach and subsequent events. At this time Kesey’s
group was also joined by Wavy Gravy, a legendary performance artist who fit
in with the Pranksters in much the same way that Neal Cassady did. Word on
the Tests started getting around all over the Bay Area.

The
crowning achievement of the Acid Test project and the apex of the entire San
Francisco scene would follow soon, in mid-January 1966, when Stewart Brand’s
3-day “Trips Festival” was held at the Longshoremen’s Hall. This
hugely successful mixed media and performance art event brought together all
the disparate creative forces that had been brewing around the Bay Area in
an extraordinary party. Everything that followed – the Fillmore and Avalon
ballroom rock concert series, the famous poster art scene, the psychedelic
drug culture that swept across the western world in 1967- can be traced back
to the Trips Festival, for which the Pranksters’ Tests provided much of the
inspiration. The second of the 3 days was designated an “Acid
Test” though on a grander scale than anything they’d staged before,
with a turnout of several thousand. The Pranksters, following Ken Babbs’
suggestion to “learn how to function on acid” delivered their
unpredictable mix of fun and madness like a well-oiled machinery. As a sign
of the commercialization to come, Bill Graham and other sponsors grossed
several thousand dollars on the festival, even though Kesey tried getting as
many people as possible in for free through the back doors.

No visual
or aural documentation of these particular Tests has been made available
yet, but recordings of both earlier and later Prankster events exist, and
give an indication of the mindset and atmosphere of the 1965-66 period. The
earliest material is centered around the memorable Vietnam Day prank in
Berkeley at which the Pranksters, invited by unsuspecting war protesters,
turned up in a “Further” bus painted blood red and covered with
military regalia, and proceeded to explain the futility of anti-war
demonstrations (“that’s what THEY do, they hold rallies and they
march”). Kesey pointed out the resemblance between activist Paul
Jacobs’ podium mannerisms and Mussolini’s, and ended his speech with a
sentimental harmonica solo and the suggestion that everyone instead turn
their back on the war and simply say “fuck it”. A complete LP of
Prankster monologues, sound collages and music inspired by this event and
the Hell’s Angels party was recorded in November 1965 but not released until
1998 (“Acid Tests vol 1”, CD on the British King Mob label). It is
a remarkable listening experience, highly elaborate and constantly
entertaining. Around this time, Kesey & Babbs also made a recording of
Neal Cassady monologues backed by a local rock group called Robin & the
Hoods, but the planned record unfortunately never materialized.

Along with
the Vietnam Day material the British 1998 CD contains a reissue of the Merry
Pranksters’ only official release from the 1960s, a very rare LP from March
1966 simply titled “Acid Test”. Recorded in a San Francisco studio
around the time of the Trips Festival, this is a more stripped-down,
ad-libbed affair full of unpredictable mind games and monologues, as well as
an enigmatic interview with Kesey. The skillful use of tapes with
pre-recorded music and sound effects for the Tests is evident on another
recent CD, “Acid Test vol 2” (released by Babbs & Kesey
themselves in 2000). This consists of live recordings from the San Francisco
State Acid Test in October 1966, at which Kesey hid away with a microphone
in a concealed room due to his fugitive status, but still managed to engage
in echo-laden dialogues with Wavy Gravy and Babbs. The mood is somewhat
subdued, and Kesey’s altered outlook is obvious from his monologue on how
“The Head has become Fat”. This was one of the last Acid Tests,
after a 9-month period that proved to be less exhilarating than the 1964-65
period for both Kesey himself and for the Merry Pranksters.


Ken Babbs
at the Trips Festival

Soon after
the Trips Festival, things had taken a bad turn for the group. Kesey, having
recently been arrested again for marijuana possession, staged a fake suicide
and left for Mexico and plans were made for the others to join him there.
Before doing this, the rest of the group arranged a few Tests in the Los
Angeles era, now with Ken Babbs and Wavy Gravy at the wheel. These Tests
were among the most successful and outrageous and may have had a significant
impact in jump-starting the psychedelic era in L A, but lacking Kesey’s calm
and unquestionable leadership tensions started to mount. Finally, Babbs and
a number of inner circle Pranksters took the Further bus and went down to
Mexico, leaving several others behind. They met up with Kesey who was
getting increasingly paranoid, and remained south of the border for a
harrowing period of several months during which no significant Prankster
activities occurred. In the Fall 1966 the Pranksters made their way back to
the Bay Area in smaller groups and reunited for the S F State Acid Test, and
preparing for a new grand vision of Kesey’s, the Acid Test Graduation.

The Acid
Test Graduation was intended to be a major San Francisco event, like the
Trips Festival. Winterland which was the largest venue in the area had been
booked, and Bill Graham, the Grateful Dead and the Hell’s Angels had been
contacted. However, the S F scene had changed and evolved significantly
during the year, and though Kesey & the Pranksters were still held in
high regard as pioneers, many of the other forces on the music and art
scenes carried greater weight now, including the almighty dollar. Kesey’s
vision of a Test to “go beyond acid” didn’t appeal to some of
these powers, and the original plans had to be reduced to a smaller event in
the Pranksters’ own workshop/studio. After the Graduation was held on
Halloween 1966, the Pranksters made a few performances in the South Bay
area, and, according to the commonly told story, drifted apart with no more
Acid Tests. This was not the case, however.

3. The Houston Acid Test

Texas was
no stranger to LSD at the time of the Houston Acid Test in March 1967. In
fact, it could be argued that along with California, Texas was the
pioneering US state for a non-academic psychedelic culture. Experiments with
peyote and morning glory seeds began among college students in the early
1960s, and in 1965 use of marijuana and early batches of non-pharmaceutical
LSD was common in hip circles. Even obscure drugs like DMT could be
obtained. All the elements of an underground culture were in place, the main
difference to the west coast was that the early psychedelic phase in Texas
was concentrated to one specific spot – the University Of Texas (UT) in
Austin. As an example, UT campus magazine the Texas Ranger ran a long piece
on the effects and availability of peyote in October 1964. Out of this
bohemian college scene came artists and performers like Janis Joplin and
Gilbert Shelton, and a foundation was laid for famous music venues like the
Vulcan Gas Co and the Armadillo World Headquarters in the late 1960s and
early 1970s.

The UT and
Austin also gave birth to what is generally considered the first psychedelic
rock group, the 13th Floor Elevators who formed in December 1965 and had an
LSD-oriented agenda from day one. With the help of the Elevators and
reasonably open-minded scenemakers like writer Jim Langdon and radio station
owner Bill Josey in Austin, writer/promoter Scott Holtzman and TV show host
Larry Kane in Houston, the Texans were ahead even of the S F Bay Area with
regards to “psychedelic” music. Holtzman wrote a newspaper column
in July 1966 on how psychedelia was all the rage among teenagers in Houston,
while it would be several months before the rest of the US caught on in
larger numbers. Somewhat surprisingly, LSD and related substances also
remained legal in Texas long after California had passed their anti-LSD
bill, and legislation was still only under discussion in the state capitol
as late as April 1967.

When the
Merry Pranksters arrived at Houston’s Rice University in early 1967 they
came to a fully developed psychedelic culture, albeit one with a stronger
focus on music than San Francisco (or Austin). Bands like the Elevators and
the Red Krayola were as avantgarde as anything found in California, and teen
clubs like the Living Eye were immersed in the new language and imagery.
However, it appears that with the exception of Red Krayola and their loyal
following of college art students, the art/pop music/politics crossovers
typical of the Bay Area were rare in Houston, which in that sense more
resembled Los Angeles. Staging the Test at prestigious Rice was a wise
decision, as it was probably the venue in Houston most receptive to the
Pranksters’ unusual ideas.

The choice
of Rice University’s Brown College as the setting for the Acid Test was no
coincidence. The Test was initiated by Houston author and Rice literature
lecturer Larry McMurtry, a friend of Kesey and Babbs from the creative
writing classes at Stanford University in the late 1950s. McMurtry was part
of the early LSD set in Palo Alto, but had left the Bay Area before the 1964
“Further” tour. Instead, the Pranksters had come by and visited
him during the bus trip, and the aforementioned “Stark Naked”
psychosis episode actually culminated in the street outside McMurtry’s
suburban Houston home. McMurtry, who had achieved success when one of his
novels was turned into the Paul Newman movie “Hud”, stayed in
contact with Kesey’s group, and the 1967 Houston Test was a reunion of
sorts. The Pranksters staid at his home again, and hung around in Houston
for a few days before the actual Test. According to a Rice graduate student
who visited McMurtry’s house, the Pranksters were “…kind of spooky,
and next to impossible to talk to… they just play games and compile
scrapbooks, and continually repaint the bus.” Larry McMurtry would
remain a central figure in the psychedelic culture in Houston, and was
interviewed by the Houston Post in May 1967 on the pros and cons of LSD. A
few years later his Texas small-town novel “The Last Picture Show”
was turned into a highly acclaimed Hollywood movie.

The Brown
College Acid Test, held on 16 March 1967, is described in some detail in a
Houston Chronicle piece from the following week. The Pranksters visit is
referred to as a “historic moment, kind of”, and Kesey’s group
“amiable eccentrics”. While Kesey’s novelist career is briefly
mentioned, Prankster projects like the “Further” journey and the
west coast Tests are not, and this is not surprising as widespread knowledge
of these did not occur until Tom Wolfe’s book in 1968. 

According to the
Chronicle article, the Test began outside the College where the bus was
presented for the few hundred visitors, after which toy dart guns were
distributed among the crowd. A dart gun “war” between the audience
and the bus inhabitants followed, a less confrontational comment on Vietnam
attitudes than the Berkeley Prank in 1965. The bus went for a brief tour
round the campus area with “an electronic roar from the
loudspeakers” and dozens of Rice students on top and inside, Kesey
managing to getting lost in the campus area before all participants
reassembled for the actual Acid Test.

Inside the
college dining room all chairs and tables had been pushed aside to make room
for the Test crowd. Someone threw a pill in Kesey’s direction, which he
picked up and swallowed without closer examination. “I dig pills”,
he said. Wavy Gravy (referred to as “a Prankster named Hugh”)
initiated a reading of the I-Ching, the one ancient text that Kesey’s group
cared for, and was showered with darts in response. Real-life Vietnam
veteran Ken Babbs jumped up to protect Wavy Gravy and stood chanting
enigmatic slogans (“Grover Cleveland died for YOU”) while the
audience fired away. After this, all lights were turned off and the
Pranksters set their experiment in motion, like the Acid Graduation focusing
more on meditative states and group experiences than the electronic
blitzkrieg of the early Acid Tests. 

In the pitch-black hall the audience was
invited to “hear, see, touch, taste or smell whatever they liked”,
and also try breathing in unison. This they did, mixed with “shrieks,
catcalls and laughter”. According to the Chronicle the experiments were
met with excitement from the Rice students, as was the suggestion from a
“ravishing platinum-blonde” Prankster to all get in a pile on the
floor after the lights flashed back on. “The Hermit”, an eccentric
Prankster from the La Honda days, shot darts and threw paper airplanes into
the huge pile of humans, aiming constantly at Kesey.

Ken Babbs
recently described the subsequent events in an e-mail to me: “… Then
we decided to leave and went out on the bus and hundreds of people followed
and got on the bus, inside, on the top, hanging from the rear, sitting on
the hood, and Kesey kept saying, ‘we are leaving, we are not coming back, it
would behoove you all to get off’ and everyone thought it was a total hoot
and no one got off, and so we took off and were heading out of town, out on
the freeway, when a car pulled alongside with people inside waving and
hollering, car honking. It was Larry McMurtry yelling, ‘go back go back,
this is not good, you cannot take these people away, be kind, turn back,
turn back’. Well, if it had been anyone but Larry we’d have ignored them,
but since it was he we turned back and took them all back there. We kicked
the Hermit off the bus and we haven’t seen him since, maybe he’s still there
shooting his plastic darts at jack rabbits in the Texas plains…”.


The Hermit
and the Bus

Almost
nothing has been known about this Acid Test, which isn’t mentioned in either
Prankster chronicles nor Houston 1960s retrospectives. Several of the Red
Krayola’s entourage are likely to have participated, perhaps even the
Krayola themselves, and indeed some of the Houston band’s eccentric
shenanigans have a distinct Prankster feel. The 13th Floor Elevators would
certainly have been interested in what Kesey’s group were doing but were on
tour around Texas at the time. Their first producer Gordon Bynum was present
at the Test, however. Among the Pranksters most key members were there,
although Neal Cassady had left after the Acid Test Graduation.

The Merry
Pranksters soon returned to the Bay Area and as far as is known, the Houston
Acid Test was their very last activity together. In May 1967 Kesey received
a six-month work farm sentence in San Mateo, and through some legal
manouevering was allowed to serve time for his other arrests concurrently.
In the Fall, several of the Pranksters joined him in retreating to farms and
ranches around the Oregon countryside.


END

Thanks to Andrew Brown for the Houston source material.


(previously published in Ugly
Things magazine #23)

 





 

About homelessholocaust

Tijuana Hobo , Hebrew Hobo Railroad Rabbi, The Truth Teller Tell True Truth Truthfully. If the Truth is Repugnant to you, You are a Reagan Cultist. Ronald Reagan was Taught by L. Ron Hubbard, Reagan & Hubbard FOUNDED THE SCIENCE FICTION MIND FUCKING GAME- SCIENTOLOGY- then REAGAN USED NERO LINGUIST PROGRAMMING as PRESIDENT to MURDER THE MINDS of AMERICANS!
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