I don’t think it can be queationed

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Posted on October 29, 2011

http://psychiatricmayhem.blogspot.com/2010/10/i-do-not-think-it-can-be-questioned.html
The Three Christs of Ypsilanti

by Milton Rokeach

I just thought of one book I (surprisingly) left off my list. It’s a book few people have ever heard of, even within the mental health field. It’s called “The Three Christs of Ypsilanti” and tells the story from the 1950′s (long before the modern catch-phrase of de-institutionalisation) where they brought together three long-term schizophrenic patients onto the same ward in a hospital in (you guessed it) Ypsilanti Hospital.

Anyway, each of these three patients was suffering from the delusion that they were Jesus Christ. The book is the chronicle of their interaction with each other and the staff as they each tried to maintain and defend their ‘identity’. I have never read anything quite like it as a ‘case study’. And given the latest trends in the field, it is probably an unrepeatable undertaking.

It’s a fascinating read – or at least I found it so. I actually carried it around for several years as a kind of “Bible”. Not for the so-called psychiatric insights but for the dialogue & interplay between 3 human beings all claiming to have the same identity. Actually, I found very little on the web about this book except one classic comment:

Maybe “Leon” of Ypsilanti really WAS Jesus… and everybody tried to “CURE” Him!!

I did identify with Leon in many ways.

I may one day get the time & energy & inclination to type up the best bits of this book. In the meantime, enjoy a few scans of some old photcopies I have. I found it’s tough to scan a thick book but not so tough to scan photocopies of that thick book. You learn something every day. Well, read these excerpts and you’ll learn a thing or two. Call Leon ‘deluded’ if you must, but I think he has one of the most creative minds you would ever wish to encounter. Reading these words again, I am reminded of that song about Van Gogh, ‘this world was never meant for one as beautiful as you’. But enough of my ramblings, here’s some of Mr. Rokeach’s …

Mind you, even this smattering gives just a taste of the book’s contents. You’ll have to hunt down a copy to get the total experience. The ISBN is … well, on second thoughts, click here for the book info.

Pages 216 & 7

Pages 144 & 5

Pages 146 & 7

Pages 136 & 7

Pages 138 & 9

Pages 74 & 5

Pages 72 & 3

Pages 80& 1

Pages 82 & 3

Pages 130 & 1

Pages 128 & 9

Pages 104 & 5

Pages ?? – where Leon says ‘I have to see the relationship to infinity. If I can see that, I’m satisfied.’, which may be as profound a statement you’ll ever hear from someone who is supposedly ‘deluded’ and ‘out-of-touch’ with ‘reality’ … unfrotunately I sliced the scanned image up a little bit so I haven’t found what page it comes from … so be patient … all will be revealed in the fullness of time …

Pages 160 & 1

Pages 144 & 145 – scanned from the actual book rather than from the photocopies …

Pages 150 & 1

Pages 152 & 3

Pages 154 & 5

Pages 156 & 7

Pages 158 & 9

Pages 214 & 5

Pages 164 & 5

Pages 168 & 9

Pages 224 & 5

Pages 230 & 1

Pages 234 & 5 – need re-doing but almost legible

Pages 250 & 1

Pages 252 & 3

Pages 254 & 5

Pages 256 & 7

Pages 310 & 1 – mentions Laing

Pages 336 & 7 – reflections ‘twenty years later’ …

Page 338

Page 238 – has ‘the relationship to infinity’ but I need to re-scan it …

More scans soon … unless I happen to be abducted by advanced intergalactic travelers who have zeroed in on my brainwaves from the vastness of interstellar space. But that’s probably not going to happen in the next five

Some Links

Most of the following come from a search using the Google search engine –

Quote from Milton Rokeach

Article about the identity of Christ mentions the book

Interesting discussion of the book {added May 17, 2002}

{Or click here}

Rapunzel – a poem which mentions the book

Myths about psychiatric drugs

The message I mentioned previously suggesting maybe Leon actually WAS Christ

Article at Successful Schizophrenia site

The Politics of Experience by R.D. Laing

Swami Beyondananda Karma Talk

Another discussion

Interesting message at a dicussion board

An article called Rogue Messiahs

How to evaluate our beliefs

Another site which mentions the book

More info on Dr Rokeach
Since the beginnings of recorded history, man has been fascinated with the insane, with their deranged feeling, thinking, and behaviour. Insane people with fanciful delusions have at times attracted large numbers of adherents, who looked upon their psychotic leaders as prophets or as saviours of some sort. The alluring properties of the “prophet’s” message may be more than just a beckoning of a way to escape from the boredom of everyday life. I suspect that many followers are riveted by a peculiarly intoxicating quality of psychotic ecstasy conveyed by the “mad” leader. ……..

The psychiatric disease that converts man into an other-worldly creature – at once wiser than the wisest of the sane and yet so deeply troubled that he suffers more than a terminal cancer patient – is surely schizophrenia. Because of his bizarre loss of contact with everyday reality, the schizophrenic can appeal to us as a messiah bearing the message of the infinite. For our conception of the universe is bounded by the straitjacket of conventional thinking processes. A schizophrenic’s self-perception is so fragmented that he seems to function at a different plane of consciousness from the rest of humanity. Some psychiatrists who have dealt extensively with schizophrenics even wonder whether the schizophrenic’s “psychotic” perception of the world might not conform more to ultimate reality than does our sane vision.

Because of such doubts, Ronald Laing, a Scottish psychiatrist, questions whether schizophrenia should be viewed as a disease at all in the ordinary sense. He feels that the schizophrenic experience may be quite a natural one. In schizophrenia, individuals, for unclear reasons, have entered into an “inner world” that part of their psyche which is unconscious most of the time and which contains many of the primitive instinctual elements “discovered” by Freud. …… He views the schizophrenic episode as a potentially enriching experience, perhaps reminiscent of a psychedelic trip on LSD. “This journey is experienced as going further in, as going back through one’s personal life and back and through and beyond into the experience of all mankind, of the primal man, of Adam and pehaps even further into the beings of animals, vegetables and minerals” If society would only allow them to embark on this journey unimpeded by social pressures, psychiatrists or tranquilizing drugs, they would emerge from it as better people.

March 2001 Update –

Here are a couple of collages of photocopies from this book which I just found in an old notebook. Enjoy.

Collage 1

Collage 2

More may follow …

Just in case those scans aren’t legible to you … here is the gist of what they say …

‘ … which we clasp rather tenuously. To learn how delicate are your claims on reality, all you need do is ingest a moderate dose of LSD. The most frightening and yet most uplifting experience that psychedelic drugs elicit is the merging of the self with the universe. After first being fascinated with the perceptual changes produced by the drug, you may begin to wonder about the boundaries of your own body and soul. You feel yourself shrink to a pinpoint or expand to fill the room. Soon you begin to wonder where you leave off and the rest of the world begins. The ultimate consequence of this sensation – which is almost impossible to describe in words – is a fusion of the self with the infinite, man with God, your body with the rest of the universe. This is the ultimate beatific experience of Eastern and Christian mystics, something they strive for during years of meditation, but …’

‘Only when Laing’s utopian age of nonpsychiatry comes to pass will everyone presumably realise that schizophrenia need not be a disease but instead a uniquely enriching life experience, like sexual intercourse. He argues, “The laugh’s on us. They [the ex-schizophrenics] will see that what we call ‘schizophrenia’ was one of the forms in which, often through quite ordinary people, the light began to break through the cracks in our all-too-closed minds … perhaps we will learn to accord to the so-called schizophrenics who have come back to us, perhaps after years, no less respect than the often no less lost explorers of the renaissance.’

‘If you think about it for a while, it should be evident that your sense of identity as a distinct individual is extremely important in enabling you to function in the everyday world. Being certain that …’

Unfortunately (or maybe not), our library seems to have misplaced this book. Either that or somebody has eaten it or just didn’t feel like returning it to the library. Have’nt found all that much about it on the world-wide-web so you’ll just have to be satisfied with those glimpses …

I believe the author’s name was Solomon Snyder.

For more about R.D. Laing, click here

@ A few more quotes &

“Doublethink means the power of holding two contradictory beliefs in one’s mind simultaneously, and accepting both of them.” George Orwell (1903–50), British author. Nineteen Eighty-Four, pt. 2, ch. 9 (1949), extract from Goldstein’s book. See Fitzgerald on Intelligence.

“All writers are vain, selfish and lazy, and at the very bottom of their motives lies a mystery. Writing a book is a long, exhausting struggle, like a long bout of some painful illness. One would never undertake such a thing if one were not driven by some demon whom one can neither resist nor understand.” George Orwell (1903–50), British author. “Why I Write” (1947; repr. in Collected Essays, 1961).

“We are bemused and crazed creatures, strangers to our true selves, to one another, and to the spiritual and material world— mad, even, from an ideal standpoint we can glimpse but not adopt.” R. D. Laing (1927–89), British psychiatrist. The Politics of Experience, Introduction (1967).

“If you talk to God, you are praying; if God talks to you, you have schizophrenia.” Thomas Szasz (b. 1920), U.S. psychiatrist. The Second Sin, “Schizophrenia” (1973).

“People often say that this or that person has not yet found himself. But the self is not something one finds; it is something one creates.” Thomas Szasz (b. 1920), U.S. psychiatrist. The Second Sin, “Personal Conduct” (1973).

“There is in every madman a misunderstood genius whose idea, shining in his head, frightened people, and for whom delirium was the only solution to the strangulation that life had prepared for him.” Antonin Artaud (1896–1948), French theater producer, actor, theorist. Van Gogh, the Man Suicided by Society (1947; repr. in Selected Writings, pt. 33, ed. by Susan Sontag, 1976).

“And what is an authentic madman? It is a man who preferred to become mad, in the socially accepted sense of the word, rather than forfeit a certain superior idea of human honor. So society has strangled in its asylums all those it wanted to get rid of or protect itself from, because they refused to become its accomplices in certain great nastinesses. For a madman is also a man whom society did not want to hear and whom it wanted to prevent from uttering certain intolerable truths.” Antonin Artaud (1896–1948), French theater producer, actor, theorist. Van Gogh, the Man Suicided by Society, (1947; repr. in Selected Writings, pt. 33, ed. by Susan Sontag, 1976).

From Politics of Experience by R.D.Laing –

Is there anywhere such a thing as a normal man?

Modern society clamps a straitjacket of conformity on every child that’s born. In the process, man’s potentialities are devastated and the terms ‘sanity’ and ‘madness’ become ambiguous. The schizophrenic may simply be someone who has been unable to suppress his normal instincts and conform to an abnormal society

{May type more of this book later – excellent case history & analysis}

Here’s an excerpt from the script of the movie “Network” with Peter Finch. I’d like to get the book – I’m not sure who wroted it. ….. “I’m imbued with some special spirit. It’s not a religious feeling at all. It’s a shocking eruption of great electrical energy. I feel vivid and flashing as if suddenly I’ve been plugged into some great electromagnetic field. I feel connected to all living things – to flowers, birds … all the animals of the world. I’m linked to some great unseen living force – what I think the Hindus call Prana. But it’s not a breakdown. I’ve never felt more orderly in my life. It is a shattering and beautiful sensation. It is the exulted flow of the space-time continuum, save that it is spaceless and timeless and of such loveliness … I feel on the verge of some great ultimate truth….”

Schizophrenia

This article submitted by John Landau.

Email: drmarcial@aol.com

Literally, the fractal mind. A logos that affirms multiplicity and the occupation of all possible points. The schizophrenic is like the electron : if we predict the position, we cannot predict the velocity ; if we predict the velocity, we cannot predict the position. Like a nomad travelling through smooth space, the schizophrenic, like the electron in an electron cloud, may appear anywhere within the field, occupying all positions while singularly fluctuating between positions aleatorily. Schizophrenia is a Cageian simultaneity of happenings: the nose runs, the mouth babbles, the hands fiddle, the eyes roll, the feet shuffle, the diaphragm laughs or hiccups, the Eucalyptus adds its scent to the moment, the moon at that angle in the sky … Schizophrenia is a process of compiling lists and letting go of syntax. Social schizophrenia is a simultaneity of spontaneities, a flux of ad-hoc organizings of activity, a surrealist engagement of “collective self-management” as the transtruction [ construction – deconstruction process] of dissipative structures. All of this is distinguished from clinical schizophrenia, which is alienated, repressed schizophrenia isolated from desiring-production and collective creativity. Liberated schizophrenia is schizophrenia that has come into its own as an Escherian, topological celebration of fractal generativity!

Singularity

This article submitted by John Landau on 10/11/97.

Email: drmarcial@aol.com

A singularity is a virtual potentiality existing at the zero point which begins to actualize, upsetting the habit patterns of momentum which struggle to keep time as a linear progression, a stable identity where moment begets moment. Yet time is a discontinuity. Each moment dies and is reborn at the zero point, the Schrodinger space. All possibilities compress at this dense intensity. A singularity is a possibility that escapes compression into actualization. It is a sign of difference-in-itself. Since A is never equal to A, since a thing both is and is not what it is, identity never captures being and self-sameness is impossible b self-similarity generates nano-variations that become amplified in time. Molar identity attempts to scan and surgically remove such nano-variations b becoming involves creatively amplifying them. Because singularities demonstrate that identity is only and always approximate, the State has an ill will towards them.

Back to my list of interesting mental health sites
Posted by boxcarro at 2:16 PM 0 comments

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Labels: PATIENTS PUT OUT TO DIE in MICHIGAN
Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Livestock Management
I do not think it can be questioned that sympathy is a genuine motive, and that some people at some times are made somewhat uncomfortable by the sufferings of some other people. It is sympathy that has produced the many humanitarian advances of the last hundred years. We are shocked when we hear stories ofthe ill-treatment of lunatics, and there are now quite a number of asylums in which they are not ill-treated. Prisoners in Western countries are not supposed to be tortured, and when they are, there is an outcry if the facts are discovered. We do not approve of treating orphans as they are treated in Oliver Twist. Protestant countries disapprove of cruelty to animals. In all these ways sympathy has been politically effective. If the fear of war were removed, its effectiveness would become much greater. Perhaps the best hope for the future of mankind is that ways will be found of increasing the scope and intensity of sympathy.
Summation

The time has come to sum up our discussion. Politics is concerned with herds rather than with individuals, and the passions which are important in politics are, therefore, those in which the various members of a given herd can feel alike. The broad instinctive mechanism upon which political edifices have to be built is one of cooperation within the herd and hostility towards other herds. The co-operation within the herd is never perfect. There are members who do not conform, who are, in the etymological sense, “egregious”, that is to say, outside the flock. These members are those who have fallen below, or risen above, the ordinary level. They are: idiots, criminals, prophets, and discoverers. A wise herd will learn to tolerate the eccentricity of those who rise above the average, and to treat with a minimum of ferocity those who fall below it.

As regards relations to other herds, modern technique has produced a conflict between self-interest and instinct. In old days, when two tribes went to war, one of them exterminated the other, and annexed its territory. From the point of view of the victor, the whole operation was thoroughly satisfactory. The killing was not at all expensive, and the excitement was agreeable. It is not to be wondered at that, in such circumstances, war persisted. Unfortunately, we still have the emotions appropriate to such primitive warfare, while the actual operations of war have changed completely. Killing an enemy in a modern war is a very expensive operation. If you consider how many Germans were killed in the late war, and how much the victors are paying in income tax, you can, by a sum in long division, discover the cost of a dead German, and you will find it considerable. In the East, it is true, the enemies of the Germans have secured the ancient advantages of turning out the defeated population and occupying their lands. The Western victors, however, have secured no such advantages. It is obvious that modern war is not good business from a financial point of view. Although we won both the world wars, we should now be much richer if they had not occured. If men were actuated by self-interest, which they are not – except in the case of a few saints – the whole human race would cooperate. There would be no more wars, no more armies, no more navies, no more atom bombs. There would not be armies of propagandists employed in poisoning the minds of Nation A against Nation B, and reciprocally of Nation B against Nation A. There would not be armies of officials at frontiers to prevent the entry of foreign books and foreign ideas, however excellent in themselves. There would not be customs barriers to ensure the existence of many small enterprises where one big enterprise would be more economic. All this would happen very quickly if men desired their own happiness as ardently as they desired the misery of their neighbours. But, you will tell me, what is the use of these utopian dreams ? Moralists will see to it that we do not become wholly selfish, and until we do the millenium will be impossible.

I do not wish to seem to end upon a note of cynicism. I do not deny that there are better things than selfishness, and that some people achieve these things. I maintain, however, on the one hand, that there are few occasions upon which large bodies of men, such as politics is concerned with, can rise above selfishness, while, on the other hand, there are a very great many circumstances in which populations will fall below selfishness, if selfishness is interpreted as enlightened self-interest.

And among those occasions on which people fall below self-interest are most of the occasions on which they are convinced that they are acting from idealistic motives. Much that passes as idealism is disguised hatred or disguised love of power. When you see large masses of men swayed by what appear to be noble motives, it is as well to look below the surface and ask yourself what it is that makes these motives effective. It is partly because it is so easy to be taken in by a facade of nobility that a psychological inquiry, such as I have been attempting, is worth making. I would say, in conclusion, that if what I have said is right, the main thing needed to make the world happy is intelligence. And this, after all, is an optimistic conclusion, because intelligence is a thing that can be fostered by known methods of education.

From Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Editor Horst Frenz, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969 ( http://www.nobel.se/nobel/nobel-foundation/publications/lectures/index.html )
Notes from XahLee.org

This is Bertrand Russell’s Nobel Lecture, on December 11, 1950. The subsection division, subsection headings, and annotations are added by Xah Lee, 2005-03, for the purpose of study and verification.

*
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GET OUT OF MY MIND!!! MIND PARASITES! MIND PARASITES!
Posted on October 29, 2011

CRUELITY to MENTAL PATIENTS- thrown out to DIE!
HOME / Science : The state of the universe.
Jesus, Jesus, Jesus
In the late 1950s, three men who identified as the Son of God were forced to live together in a mental hospital. What happened?
On June 16, 1930 construction for the hospital had begun. Albert Kahn was the architect that had designed the building. Kahn had his own design firm in Detroit, Michigan. The hospital was opened a year after construction had begun. Over the course of the first year the hospital had admitted 922 patients. The estimated cost of living was about eighty cents per day. At the end of World War II The Ypsilanti State Hospital had built two new wards with over 4,000 patients. After adding the two wards, this still brought the hospital over capacity. In 1991, Governor John Engler cut all funding for state hospitals. The Ypsilanti State Hospital was the first to be shut down.[1] The forensic center stayed open until 2001, but when the hospital closed this left many patients homeless. They were left with nothing; most of the patients had lost contact with family and friends too.

In the late 1950s, psychologist Milton Rokeach was gripped by an eccentric plan. He gathered three psychiatric patients, each with the delusion that they were Jesus Christ, to live together for two years in Ypsilanti State Hospital to see if their beliefs would change. The early meetings were stormy. “You oughta worship me, I’ll tell you that!” one of the Christs yelled. “I will not worship you! You’re a creature! You better live your own life and wake up to the facts!” another snapped back. “No two men are Jesus Christs. … I am the Good Lord!” the third interjected, barely concealing his anger.

Frustrated by psychology’s focus on what he considered to be peripheral beliefs, like political opinions and social attitudes, Rokeach wanted to probe the limits of identity. He had been intrigued by stories of Secret Service agents who felt they had lost contact with their original identities, and wondered if a man’s sense of self might be challenged in a controlled setting. Unusually for a psychologist, he found his answer in the Bible. There is only one Son of God, says the good book, so anyone who believed himself to be Jesus would suffer a psychological affront by the very existence of another like him. This was the revelation that led Rokeach to orchestrate his meeting of the Messiahs and document their encounter in the extraordinary (and out-of-print) book from 1964, The Three Christs of Ypsilanti.
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Although by no means common, Christ conventions have an unexpectedly long history. In his commentary to Cesare Beccaria’s essay “Crimes and Punishments,” Voltaire recounted the tale of the “unfortunate madman” Simon Morin who was burnt at the stake in 1663 for claiming to be Jesus. Unfortunate it seems, because Morin was originally committed to a madhouse where he met another who claimed to be God the Father, and “was so struck with the folly of his companion that he acknowledged his own, and appeared, for a time, to have recovered his senses.” The lucid period did not last, however, and it seems the authorities lost patience with his blasphemy. Another account of a meeting of the Messiahs comes from Sidney Rosen’s book My Voice Will Go With You: The Teaching Tales of Milton H. Erickson. The renowned psychiatrist apparently set two delusional Christs in his ward arguing only for one to gain insight into his madness, miraculously, after seeing something of himself in his companion. (“I’m saying the same things as that crazy fool is saying,” said one of the patients. “That must mean I’m crazy too.”)

These tales are surprising because delusions, in the medical sense, are not simply a case of being mistaken. They are considered to be pathological beliefs, reflecting a warped or broken understanding that is not, by definition, amenable to being reshaped by reality. One of most striking examples is the Cotard delusion, under which a patient believes she is dead; surely there can be no clearer demonstration that simple and constant contradiction offers no lasting remedy. Rokeach, aware of this, did not expect a miraculous cure. Instead, he was drawing a parallel between the baseless nature of delusion and the flimsy foundations we use to construct our own identities. If tomorrow everyone treats me as if I have an electronic device in my head, there are ways and means I could use to demonstrate they are wrong and establish the facts of the matter—a visit to the hospital perhaps. But what if everyone treats me as if my core self were fundamentally different than I believed it to be? Let’s say they thought I was an undercover agent—what could I show them to prove otherwise? From my perspective, the best evidence is the strength of my conviction. My belief is my identity.
Milton Rokeach’s The Three Christs of Ypsilanti.

In one sense, Rokeach’s book reflects a remarkably humane approach for its era. We are asked to see ourselves in the psychiatric patients, at a time when such people were regularly locked away and treated as incomprehensible objects of pity rather than individuals worthy of empathy. Rokeach’s constant attempts to explain the delusions as understandable reactions to life events require us to accept that the Christs have not “lost contact” with reality, even if their interpretations are more than a little uncommon.

But the book makes for starkly uncomfortable reading as it recounts how the researchers blithely and unethically manipulated the lives of Leon, Joseph, and Clyde in the service of academic curiosity. In one of the most bizarre sections, the researchers begin colluding with the men’s delusions in a deceptive attempt to change their beliefs from within their own frame of reference. The youngest patient, Leon, starts receiving letters from the character he believes to be his wife, “Madame Yeti Woman,” in which she professes her love and suggests minor changes to his routine. Then Joseph, a French Canadian native, starts receiving faked letters from the hospital boss advising certain changes in routine that might benefit his recovery. Despite an initially engaging correspondence, both the delusional spouse and the illusory boss begin to challenge the Christs’ beliefs more than is comfortable, and contact is quickly broken off.

In fact, very little seems to shift the identities of the self-appointed Messiahs. They debate, argue, at one point come to blows, but show few signs that their beliefs have become any less intense. Only Leon seems to waver, eventually asking to be addressed as “Dr Righteous Idealed Dung” instead of his previous moniker of “Dr Domino dominorum et Rex rexarum, Simplis Christianus Puer Mentalis Doctor, reincarnation of Jesus Christ of Nazareth.” Rokeach interprets this more as an attempt to avoid conflict than a reflection of any genuine identity change. The Christs explain one another’s claims to divinity in predictably idiosyncratic ways: Clyde, an elderly gentleman, declares that his companions are, in fact, dead, and that it is the “machines” inside them that produce their false claims, while the other two explain the contradiction by noting that their companions are “crazy” or “duped” or that they don’t really mean what they say.

In hindsight, the Three Christs study looks less like a promising experiment than the absurd plan of a psychologist who suffered the triumph of passion over good sense. The men’s delusions barely shifted over the two years, and from an academic perspective, Rokeach did not make any grand discoveries concerning the psychology of identity and belief. Instead, his conclusions revolve around the personal lives of three particular (and particularly unfortunate) men. He falls back—rather meekly, perhaps—on the Freudian suggestion that their delusions were sparked by confusion over sexual identity, and attempts to end on a flourish by noting that we all “seek ways to live with one another in peace,” even in the face of the most fundamental disagreements. As for the ethics of the study, Rokeach eventually realized its manipulative nature and apologized in an afterword to the 1984 edition: “I really had no right, even in the name of science, to play God and interfere round the clock with their daily lives.”

Although we take little from it scientifically, the book remains a rare and eccentric journey into the madness of not three, but four men in an asylum. It is, in that sense, an unexpected tribute to human folly, and one that works best as a meditation on our own misplaced self-confidence. Whether scientist or psychiatric patient, we assume others are more likely to be biased or misled than we are, and we take for granted that our own beliefs are based on sound reasoning and observation. This may be the nearest we can get to revelation—the understanding that our most cherished beliefs could be wrong’
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The Three Christs’s of Ypsilanti

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I was thrilled to read Vaughan Bell’s short essay at Slate about Milton Rokeach’s rarely encountered 1964 book, The Three Christs of Ypsilanti. It’s one of my all time favorite books, but alas, one that no one else I’ve ever met has heard of or read. It’s nearly impossible to find for a reasonable price. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is a psychiatric case study by Rokeach, a detailing of his experiment with a trio of schizophrenic patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Ypsilanti, Michigan. The three men—who each harbored the delusional belief that he was Jesus Christ returned—were forced to live with each other in a mental hospital to see if their beliefs could be challenged enough to effect a break-through in at least one of them.

But it wasn’t that simple, as Rokeach found out. Bell writes:

But the book makes for starkly uncomfortable reading as it recounts how the researchers blithely and unethically manipulated the lives of Leon, Joseph, and Clyde in the service of academic curiosity. In one of the most bizarre sections, the researchers begin colluding with the men’s delusions in a deceptive attempt to change their beliefs from within their own frame of reference. The youngest patient, Leon, starts receiving letters from the character he believes to be his wife, “Madame Yeti Woman,” in which she professes her love and suggests minor changes to his routine. Then Joseph, a French Canadian native, starts receiving faked letters from the hospital boss advising certain changes in routine that might benefit his recovery. Despite an initially engaging correspondence, both the delusional spouse and the illusory boss begin to challenge the Christs’ beliefs more than is comfortable, and contact is quickly broken off.

In fact, very little seems to shift the identities of the self-appointed Messiahs. They debate, argue, at one point come to blows, but show few signs that their beliefs have become any less intense. Only Leon seems to waver, eventually asking to be addressed as “Dr Righteous Idealed Dung” instead of his previous moniker of “Dr Domino dominorum et Rex rexarum, Simplis Christianus Puer Mentalis Doctor, reincarnation of Jesus Christ of Nazareth.” Rokeach interprets this more as an attempt to avoid conflict than a reflection of any genuine identity change. The Christs explain one another’s claims to divinity in predictably idiosyncratic ways: Clyde, an elderly gentleman, declares that his companions are, in fact, dead, and that it is the “machines” inside them that produce their false claims, while the other two explain the contradiction by noting that their companions are “crazy” or “duped” or that they don’t really mean what they say.

In hindsight, the Three Christs study looks less like a promising experiment than the absurd plan of a psychologist who suffered the triumph of passion over good sense. The men’s delusions barely shifted over the two years, and from an academic perspective, Rokeach did not make any grand discoveries concerning the psychology of identity and belief. Instead, his conclusions revolve around the personal lives of three particular (and particularly unfortunate) men. He falls back—rather meekly, perhaps—on the Freudian suggestion that their delusions were sparked by confusion over sexual identity, and attempts to end on a flourish by noting that we all “seek ways to live with one another in peace,” even in the face of the most fundamental disagreements. As for the ethics of the study, Rokeach eventually realized its manipulative nature and apologized in an afterword to the 1984 edition: “I really had no right, even in the name of science, to play God and interfere round the clock with their daily lives.”

There’s another piece I found mentioning the book that’s worth bringing in here, too, because it uses the Three Christs of Ypsilanti as a microcosm of how the world’s major religions all believe they have the one truth and worship the one true god. A guy named Steve Bhaerman who writes a humor column under the pen name “Swami Beyondananda” at a New Age website called InnerSelf had a profound insight about the book, seeing the three messianically-challenged protagonists as stand-ins for the world’s big three religions, each under the delusion that their “truth” is the true truth and it’s the other guy’s religion that is superstitious bullshit:

I hadn’t thought about that book for years, until I was reminded of it by two seemingly unrelated news items. The first involved the Middle East peace process, which recently has been neither peaceful nor much of a process. A huge seemingly unresolvable dispute involves Jerusalem, which houses the sacred sites of three major religions. Someone had the enlightening suggestion that Jerusalem be ruled by God. Of course, the next question was, whose God?

The other news item was about the Catholic church declaring that for all intents and purposes, IT alone is the one sure way to heaven—and perhaps more important, the only certain way to avoid hell. A friend of mine who owns a marketing business (and incidentally grew up Catholic) says, “I can only dream of having such an unbeatable marketing premise. Buy my product, go to heaven. Buy the other guy’s, go to hell.” Not to single out the Catholics, though. Fundamentalists of every stripe play out a dyslexic version of that childhood taunt, “My dog’s better than your dog.” Except that “my God’s better than your God” has caused millions of deaths and oceans of tears.

And that’s when it occurred to me that the three major religious systems are like the Three Christs of Ypsilanti. Each lives in a delusional system that it alone is the One True Path. And now, God has placed them all in a therapy group to see if they can accommodate one another.

Brilliant. If you are interested, some parts of The Three Christ of Ypsilanti can be read online here.

The Three Christs of Ypsilanti (InnerSelf)

Jesus, Jesus, Jesus: In the late 1950s, three men who identified as the Son of God were forced to live together in a mental hospital. What happened? (Slate)

The interesting story from this book which you have shared here encourage me to read all parts of this The Three Christ of Ypsilanti book. I shall read it on line tonight and whenever I free.

May 28, 2010
ifthenwhy says:

Now Im freaked out. I swear , last night before falling asleep I thought:

“I have to Google “The Three Christ’s of Yipsilanti” tomorrow. I loved that book…”

GET OUT OF MY MIND!!! MIND PARASITES! MIND PARASITES!

May 28, 2010
me-me says:

I’ll never hear this song in the same way:

Excellent article. Reminds me of When Rabbit Howls – which described one woman’s struggle with multiple personalities.

I found it difficult reading, but fascinating nonetheless.

I, too, can add a fourth to this list. While tripping on 5 grams of psychedelic mushrooms in a ritual setting, my friend proceeded to have a siezure due to his stopping medication prior to the trip. A week later, his parents admitted him to the Ypsilanti psych ward. While there, he developed the de(il)lusion that he was in fact Jesus Christ.

Having seen him recently, however, I can enlighten you to know that he has returned to Earth, successfully teaches rock guitar, and is way over JC. Custom Email SiteBuilder
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Posted on October 29, 2011

CRUELITY to MENTAL PATIENTS- thrown out to DIE!
HOME / Science : The state of the universe.
Jesus, Jesus, Jesus
In the late 1950s, three men who identified as the Son of God were forced to live together in a mental hospital. What happened?

On June 16, 1930 construction for the hospital had begun. Albert Kahn was the architect that had designed the building. Kahn had his own design firm in Detroit, Michigan. The hospital was opened a year after construction had begun. Over the course of the first year the hospital had admitted 922 patients. The estimated cost of living was about eighty cents per day. At the end of World War II The Ypsilanti State Hospital had built two new wards with over 4,000 patients. After adding the two wards, this still brought the hospital over capacity. In 1991, Governor John Engler cut all funding for state hospitals. The Ypsilanti State Hospital was the first to be shut down.[1] The forensic center stayed open until 2001, but when the hospital closed this left many patients homeless. They were left with nothing; most of the patients had lost contact with family and friends too.

In the late 1950s, psychologist Milton Rokeach was gripped by an eccentric plan. He gathered three psychiatric patients, each with the delusion that they were Jesus Christ, to live together for two years in Ypsilanti State Hospital to see if their beliefs would change. The early meetings were stormy. “You oughta worship me, I’ll tell you that!” one of the Christs yelled. “I will not worship you! You’re a creature! You better live your own life and wake up to the facts!” another snapped back. “No two men are Jesus Christs. … I am the Good Lord!” the third interjected, barely concealing his anger.

Frustrated by psychology’s focus on what he considered to be peripheral beliefs, like political opinions and social attitudes, Rokeach wanted to probe the limits of identity. He had been intrigued by stories of Secret Service agents who felt they had lost contact with their original identities, and wondered if a man’s sense of self might be challenged in a controlled setting. Unusually for a psychologist, he found his answer in the Bible. There is only one Son of God, says the good book, so anyone who believed himself to be Jesus would suffer a psychological affront by the very existence of another like him. This was the revelation that led Rokeach to orchestrate his meeting of the Messiahs and document their encounter in the extraordinary (and out-of-print) book from 1964, The Three Christs of Ypsilanti.
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Although by no means common, Christ conventions have an unexpectedly long history. In his commentary to Cesare Beccaria’s essay “Crimes and Punishments,” Voltaire recounted the tale of the “unfortunate madman” Simon Morin who was burnt at the stake in 1663 for claiming to be Jesus. Unfortunate it seems, because Morin was originally committed to a madhouse where he met another who claimed to be God the Father, and “was so struck with the folly of his companion that he acknowledged his own, and appeared, for a time, to have recovered his senses.” The lucid period did not last, however, and it seems the authorities lost patience with his blasphemy. Another account of a meeting of the Messiahs comes from Sidney Rosen’s book My Voice Will Go With You: The Teaching Tales of Milton H. Erickson. The renowned psychiatrist apparently set two delusional Christs in his ward arguing only for one to gain insight into his madness, miraculously, after seeing something of himself in his companion. (“I’m saying the same things as that crazy fool is saying,” said one of the patients. “That must mean I’m crazy too.”)

These tales are surprising because delusions, in the medical sense, are not simply a case of being mistaken. They are considered to be pathological beliefs, reflecting a warped or broken understanding that is not, by definition, amenable to being reshaped by reality. One of most striking examples is the Cotard delusion, under which a patient believes she is dead; surely there can be no clearer demonstration that simple and constant contradiction offers no lasting remedy. Rokeach, aware of this, did not expect a miraculous cure. Instead, he was drawing a parallel between the baseless nature of delusion and the flimsy foundations we use to construct our own identities. If tomorrow everyone treats me as if I have an electronic device in my head, there are ways and means I could use to demonstrate they are wrong and establish the facts of the matter—a visit to the hospital perhaps. But what if everyone treats me as if my core self were fundamentally different than I believed it to be? Let’s say they thought I was an undercover agent—what could I show them to prove otherwise? From my perspective, the best evidence is the strength of my conviction. My belief is my identity.
Milton Rokeach’s The Three Christs of Ypsilanti.

In one sense, Rokeach’s book reflects a remarkably humane approach for its era. We are asked to see ourselves in the psychiatric patients, at a time when such people were regularly locked away and treated as incomprehensible objects of pity rather than individuals worthy of empathy. Rokeach’s constant attempts to explain the delusions as understandable reactions to life events require us to accept that the Christs have not “lost contact” with reality, even if their interpretations are more than a little uncommon.

But the book makes for starkly uncomfortable reading as it recounts how the researchers blithely and unethically manipulated the lives of Leon, Joseph, and Clyde in the service of academic curiosity. In one of the most bizarre sections, the researchers begin colluding with the men’s delusions in a deceptive attempt to change their beliefs from within their own frame of reference. The youngest patient, Leon, starts receiving letters from the character he believes to be his wife, “Madame Yeti Woman,” in which she professes her love and suggests minor changes to his routine. Then Joseph, a French Canadian native, starts receiving faked letters from the hospital boss advising certain changes in routine that might benefit his recovery. Despite an initially engaging correspondence, both the delusional spouse and the illusory boss begin to challenge the Christs’ beliefs more than is comfortable, and contact is quickly broken off.

In fact, very little seems to shift the identities of the self-appointed Messiahs. They debate, argue, at one point come to blows, but show few signs that their beliefs have become any less intense. Only Leon seems to waver, eventually asking to be addressed as “Dr Righteous Idealed Dung” instead of his previous moniker of “Dr Domino dominorum et Rex rexarum, Simplis Christianus Puer Mentalis Doctor, reincarnation of Jesus Christ of Nazareth.” Rokeach interprets this more as an attempt to avoid conflict than a reflection of any genuine identity change. The Christs explain one another’s claims to divinity in predictably idiosyncratic ways: Clyde, an elderly gentleman, declares that his companions are, in fact, dead, and that it is the “machines” inside them that produce their false claims, while the other two explain the contradiction by noting that their companions are “crazy” or “duped” or that they don’t really mean what they say.

In hindsight, the Three Christs study looks less like a promising experiment than the absurd plan of a psychologist who suffered the triumph of passion over good sense. The men’s delusions barely shifted over the two years, and from an academic perspective, Rokeach did not make any grand discoveries concerning the psychology of identity and belief. Instead, his conclusions revolve around the personal lives of three particular (and particularly unfortunate) men. He falls back—rather meekly, perhaps—on the Freudian suggestion that their delusions were sparked by confusion over sexual identity, and attempts to end on a flourish by noting that we all “seek ways to live with one another in peace,” even in the face of the most fundamental disagreements. As for the ethics of the study, Rokeach eventually realized its manipulative nature and apologized in an afterword to the 1984 edition: “I really had no right, even in the name of science, to play God and interfere round the clock with their daily lives.”

Although we take little from it scientifically, the book remains a rare and eccentric journey into the madness of not three, but four men in an asylum. It is, in that sense, an unexpected tribute to human folly, and one that works best as a meditation on our own misplaced self-confidence. Whether scientist or psychiatric patient, we assume others are more likely to be biased or misled than we are, and we take for granted that our own beliefs are based on sound reasoning and observation. This may be the nearest we can get to revelation—the understanding that our most cherished beliefs could be wrong’

=============================================================================================
The Three Christs’s of Ypsilanti

===============================================================================================
I was thrilled to read Vaughan Bell’s short essay at Slate about Milton Rokeach’s rarely encountered 1964 book, The Three Christs of Ypsilanti. It’s one of my all time favorite books, but alas, one that no one else I’ve ever met has heard of or read. It’s nearly impossible to find for a reasonable price. The Three Christs of Ypsilanti is a psychiatric case study by Rokeach, a detailing of his experiment with a trio of schizophrenic patients at Ypsilanti State Hospital in Ypsilanti, Michigan. The three men—who each harbored the delusional belief that he was Jesus Christ returned—were forced to live with each other in a mental hospital to see if their beliefs could be challenged enough to effect a break-through in at least one of them.

But it wasn’t that simple, as Rokeach found out. Bell writes:

But the book makes for starkly uncomfortable reading as it recounts how the researchers blithely and unethically manipulated the lives of Leon, Joseph, and Clyde in the service of academic curiosity. In one of the most bizarre sections, the researchers begin colluding with the men’s delusions in a deceptive attempt to change their beliefs from within their own frame of reference. The youngest patient, Leon, starts receiving letters from the character he believes to be his wife, “Madame Yeti Woman,” in which she professes her love and suggests minor changes to his routine. Then Joseph, a French Canadian native, starts receiving faked letters from the hospital boss advising certain changes in routine that might benefit his recovery. Despite an initially engaging correspondence, both the delusional spouse and the illusory boss begin to challenge the Christs’ beliefs more than is comfortable, and contact is quickly broken off.

In fact, very little seems to shift the identities of the self-appointed Messiahs. They debate, argue, at one point come to blows, but show few signs that their beliefs have become any less intense. Only Leon seems to waver, eventually asking to be addressed as “Dr Righteous Idealed Dung” instead of his previous moniker of “Dr Domino dominorum et Rex rexarum, Simplis Christianus Puer Mentalis Doctor, reincarnation of Jesus Christ of Nazareth.” Rokeach interprets this more as an attempt to avoid conflict than a reflection of any genuine identity change. The Christs explain one another’s claims to divinity in predictably idiosyncratic ways: Clyde, an elderly gentleman, declares that his companions are, in fact, dead, and that it is the “machines” inside them that produce their false claims, while the other two explain the contradiction by noting that their companions are “crazy” or “duped” or that they don’t really mean what they say.

In hindsight, the Three Christs study looks less like a promising experiment than the absurd plan of a psychologist who suffered the triumph of passion over good sense. The men’s delusions barely shifted over the two years, and from an academic perspective, Rokeach did not make any grand discoveries concerning the psychology of identity and belief. Instead, his conclusions revolve around the personal lives of three particular (and particularly unfortunate) men. He falls back—rather meekly, perhaps—on the Freudian suggestion that their delusions were sparked by confusion over sexual identity, and attempts to end on a flourish by noting that we all “seek ways to live with one another in peace,” even in the face of the most fundamental disagreements. As for the ethics of the study, Rokeach eventually realized its manipulative nature and apologized in an afterword to the 1984 edition: “I really had no right, even in the name of science, to play God and interfere round the clock with their daily lives.”

There’s another piece I found mentioning the book that’s worth bringing in here, too, because it uses the Three Christs of Ypsilanti as a microcosm of how the world’s major religions all believe they have the one truth and worship the one true god. A guy named Steve Bhaerman who writes a humor column under the pen name “Swami Beyondananda” at a New Age website called InnerSelf had a profound insight about the book, seeing the three messianically-challenged protagonists as stand-ins for the world’s big three religions, each under the delusion that their “truth” is the true truth and it’s the other guy’s religion that is superstitious bullshit:

I hadn’t thought about that book for years, until I was reminded of it by two seemingly unrelated news items. The first involved the Middle East peace process, which recently has been neither peaceful nor much of a process. A huge seemingly unresolvable dispute involves Jerusalem, which houses the sacred sites of three major religions. Someone had the enlightening suggestion that Jerusalem be ruled by God. Of course, the next question was, whose God?

The other news item was about the Catholic church declaring that for all intents and purposes, IT alone is the one sure way to heaven—and perhaps more important, the only certain way to avoid hell. A friend of mine who owns a marketing business (and incidentally grew up Catholic) says, “I can only dream of having such an unbeatable marketing premise. Buy my product, go to heaven. Buy the other guy’s, go to hell.” Not to single out the Catholics, though. Fundamentalists of every stripe play out a dyslexic version of that childhood taunt, “My dog’s better than your dog.” Except that “my God’s better than your God” has caused millions of deaths and oceans of tears.

And that’s when it occurred to me that the three major religious systems are like the Three Christs of Ypsilanti. Each lives in a delusional system that it alone is the One True Path. And now, God has placed them all in a therapy group to see if they can accommodate one another.

Brilliant. If you are interested, some parts of The Three Christ of Ypsilanti can be read online here.

The Three Christs of Ypsilanti (InnerSelf)

Jesus, Jesus, Jesus: In the late 1950s, three men who identified as the Son of God were forced to live together in a mental hospital. What happened? (Slate)

The interesting story from this book which you have shared here encourage me to read all parts of this The Three Christ of Ypsilanti book. I shall read it on line tonight and whenever I free.

May 28, 2010
ifthenwhy says:

Now Im freaked out. I swear , last night before falling asleep I thought:

“I have to Google “The Three Christ’s of Yipsilanti” tomorrow. I loved that book…”

GET OUT OF MY MIND!!! MIND PARASITES! MIND PARASITES!

May 28, 2010
me-me says:

I’ll never hear this song in the same way:

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HOW PSYCHE DRUGS WERE DISCOVERED
Posted on October 29, 2011

In 1948 the pharmaceutical researcher Peter N. Witt discovered quite by chance that spiders builHOW PSYCHE DRUGS WERE DISCOVERED In 1948 the pharmaceutical researcher Peter N. Witt discovered quite by chance that spiders build quite different webs when under the influence of drugs than they do otherwise. The psychiatrists at the Friedmatt Sanatorium and Nursing Home in Basle, Switzerland, were aware of Witt’s work and hit on the idea of trying to get to the bottom of schizophrenia using spiders. It was a mystery – and remains so to this day – what the precise trigger was for the onset of this mental illness. However, fifty years ago scientists thought that they had found a promising lead: after taking drugs such as mescaline or LSD, healthy patients began to show symptoms similar to those exhibited by schizophrenics. These chemical substances induced short-term hallucinations and personality disorders. Could it be that such substances were permanently present in the metabolism of those suffering from schizophrenia? In other words, were schizophrenics on a constant ‘high’ due to a mere whim of their body chemistry? So, at the start of the 1950s, researchers in Basle began to examine the urine of schizophrenics in an effort to discover what this chemical compound might be. Urine was chosen as the basic material for their investigations “so that we ‘d never be stuck for large quantities to work on,” as one of the team involved later wrote. But how on earth were they supposed to find a substance that, for one, they weren’t even sure existed in the first place and, for another, they had no idea what it consisted of? The biologist Hans Peter Rieder collected and prepared 50 litres’ worth of urine samples from fifteen schizophrenics. The resulting urine concentrate was fed to spiders and the webs that they spun were then compared to those constructed by spiders that had been given researchers’ urine instead. If any systematic difference was evident in the webs made by these two groups, then it might well be that the substance they were trying to find was responsible. Moreover, if the webs also resembled those spun by spiders under the influence of LSD and mescaline, they the scientists would at least what type of substance they were looking for. The experiment was conducted several times with various different concentrations of urine, but the results were disappointing: although the spiders certainly constructed different webs when under the influence of urine than they did otherwise, no systematic difference was apparent between researchers’ and schizophrenics’ urine. After a further series of experiments, the team came to the conclusion that the geometry of spiders’ webs just wasn’t a suitable tool for diagnosing mental illnesses. Multiple Maniacs from Carny Town on Vimeo. But the researchers did find out one thing: namely, that the concentrated urine “must taste extremely unpleasant, despite all the sugar that was added”. The spiders’ behaviour left no room for doubt: “After taking just a sip, the spiders exhibited a marked abhorrence for any further contact with this solution; they left the web, rubbed any residual drops off on the wooden frame, only returned to the web after having given their pedipalps and mouthparts a thorough cleaning, and could scarcely be persuaded to take another drop of the stuff”. d quite different webs when under the influence of drugs than they do otherwise. The psychiatrists at the Friedmatt Sanatorium and Nursing Home in Basle, Switzerland, were aware of Witt’s work and hit on the idea of trying to get to the bottom of schizophrenia using spiders.

It was a mystery – and remains so to this day – what the precise trigger was for the onset of this mental illness. However, fifty years ago scientists thought that they had found a promising lead: after taking drugs such as mescaline or LSD, healthy patients began to show symptoms similar to those exhibited by schizophrenics. These chemical substances induced short-term hallucinations and personality disorders. Could it be that such substances were permanently present in the metabolism of those suffering from schizophrenia? In other words, were schizophrenics on a constant ‘high’ due to a mere whim of their body chemistry?

So, at the start of the 1950s, researchers in Basle began to examine the urine of schizophrenics in an effort to discover what this chemical compound might be. Urine was chosen as the basic material for their investigations “so that we ‘d never be stuck for large quantities to work on,” as one of the team involved later wrote. But how on earth were they supposed to find a substance that, for one, they weren’t even sure existed in the first place and, for another, they had no idea what it consisted of?

The biologist Hans Peter Rieder collected and prepared 50 litres’ worth of urine samples from fifteen schizophrenics. The resulting urine concentrate was fed to spiders and the webs that they spun were then compared to those constructed by spiders that had been given researchers’ urine instead. If any systematic difference was evident in the webs made by these two groups, then it might well be that the substance they were trying to find was responsible. Moreover, if the webs also resembled those spun by spiders under the influence of LSD and mescaline, they the scientists would at least what type of substance they were looking for.

The experiment was conducted several times with various different concentrations of urine, but the results were disappointing: although the spiders certainly constructed different webs when under the influence of urine than they did otherwise, no systematic difference was apparent between researchers’ and schizophrenics’ urine.
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Posted on July 9, 2011

In May, 1920, Charles A. Stanley, president of the Cosradio Company
and operator of amateur radio station 9BW in Wichita, Kansas, was
told by his minister, Dr. Clayton B. Wells, that if Stanley’s daily
broadcasts were going to include Sundays, he should at least be
promoting religious activities. So Stanley began broadcasting Dr.
Wells’ sermons on Sunday evenings. (The Cosradio Company would later
operate broadcasting station WEY in 1922-1923).

This article uses a number of radio operator abbreviations: QST–
General transmission of interest to everyone (i.e. a broadcast); QSA–
Strong signals; CUL–”See you later”, O. M.–”Old man”, “the ‘bug’”–
enthusiasm for the radio hobby. Also, some of the oddly spelled
words, like “droppt” for dropped”, are due to Radio News’ advocacy of
phonetic spelling.

Radio News, November, 1920, pages 270, 312:
Enter–The Radio Preacher [ Location: Tijuana. Col.Aleman, B.C., Mexico 98 Year Old Cherokee Indian, GLOBAL WARMING IS CAUSED BY SIN, ATHEISTS, AGNOSTICS, ANTI-SEMITES and OTHER PERSECUTORS of THE FOLLOWERS of the BIBLE! ANTI-CHRIST CREATES GLOBAL WARMING by causing GREAT NUMBERS of SINNERS to GO TO HELL! HELL IS PLUMB JAM PACKED FULL OF the SCREAMING TORTURED SOULS of UNSAVED HEATHEN INFIDELS!!! THERE’S LITERALLY SO MANY DAMNED SINNERS PACKED and CRAMMED DOWN THERE IN HELL that OUR EARTH IS MELTING DOWN, it’s in CRITICAL MASS!]

How a Preacher in Wichita, Kansas, Broadcasts Sermons via
Radio

By C. A. STANLEY*

YE olden time circuit preacher in Kansas who rode from parish to
parish, little dreamed that twenty years hence his more modern
followers would step to the radio transmitter, close the switch and
for twenty minutes preach to a greater number of listeners than his
complete circuit preaching ever reached. Even the average layman,
quite well read in scientific subjects, does not always realize the
wonderful strides made in radio telephone and telegraph research
work.

THE FIRST AND ORIGINAL “SKY” PILOT

From my private station in Wichita, Kansas, there is transmitted
every evening, at a specified hour, such radio news and data as may
be of interest to the local amateur and experimenter. On a certain
Sunday evening in May, as I sat in my station ready to send out my
evening “Q S T,” Dr. C. B. Wells, who by the way, is teacher of Bible
at Fairmount College as well as pastor of the Fairmount
Congregational Church, chanced to pass, droppt into the station, took
me to task for not having attended morning service, and then and
there suggested that the use of the radio station on the Lord’s day
should henceforth be devoted to the Lord’s work. I immediately took
down Dr. Wells’ sermon and transmitted it to the hundreds of stations
within hearing; and it has now become an established practice to send
out these sermons every Sunday evening at 7:30. Letters of
appreciation addressed to the “Radio Preacher” and the “Wireless
Parson” have been received from all parts of the middle west.
A jeweler located in a small town in northern Kansas, where
little ever occurs to disturb the country folk, goes to his store
every Sunday evening, copies the sermon on his jewelers receiving set
and posts it on a bulletin board in front of his store where a goodly
number of non-churchgoing people gather to read the Doctor’s sermon.

THE “BUG” CAUSES SEPARATION OF MAN AND WIFE

On July the 18th this year, Dr. Wells’ sermon was sent out as
usual, a portion of which follows:
The subject for tonight is ‘Love One Another.’ This sounds rather
mushy to some people, but in these three words is found the secret of
success for the nation, the firm and the individual. Without love
life is a failure. Did you ever stop to think that love is simply a
desire to help the other fellow play the game fair and look the world
square in the face with a feeling of pity for the man who is crooked?

Shortly afterwards I received the following letter from southern
Texas:
Radio Preacher, 9BW,
Wichita, Kansas.
Dear Sirs Was listening in tonight and working a number of
hams, when I heard for the first time your “Q S T.” I tuned the old
receiver in until you were very QSA and copied your sermon. Say O. M.
that’s the first sermon I have listened to for ten years. Am station
agent here for the ——– Railroad, and four years ago I acquired
the wireless bug. Put up an aerial and constructed a receiver. Sure
enough, I soon got the fever in real shape, sat up nights until long
after midnight. For awhile everything went 0. K. but after a while
the late hours became an old story to friend wife, and she accused me
of neglecting her and the baby. Well, maybe I did, so I laid off for
awhile; but alas, I couldn’t keep away from the old set. Well O. M.
the story’s a long one, and to cut it short, wife and baby left me.
They now live with her mother over the other side of town. I see them
about every week. Yes, I guess I love them, but I sure love to hear
the old “sigs” come in. I am wondering tonight what I am made of,
your sermon O. M. has sure torn a hole in me, I just don’t seem to
care to listen in, don’t know what’s the matter, guess I am out of
sorts. Well I will listen for your sermon next Sunday. Cul. O. M.

REUNITED

On July 25th the QST was sent out in the regular manner and we
were told that Dr. Wells was out of the city. We therefore listened
to a venerable Preacher, whose subject was an old one yet ever new–
“And a little child shall lead them.” The little folks were all
dresst in their best bib and tucker. He spoke in part of the
innocense and beauty of the child in the home, of the influence for
good on the parents. “How often the little child takes the parents’
hands and looking up into their care worn faces, says. ‘Good Papa,
Kind Mamma.’ What a soothing effect this little Heaven-sent angel has
on our home relations. Boys, if you are a family man, how is it with
you are you letting the little one in the home lead you?”
Then, on July 28th I received another letter from our radio
friend in southern Texas which, was of a very pathetic nature and
speaks for itself. The letter follows:
Radio Preacher, 9BW,
Wichita, Kansas.
My dear Radio Preachers Last night I listened-in as usual,
copied your sermon, which was very QSA. That was sure some sermon. I
never before thought that I would have any use for preachers, but I
have changed my mind. Your sermon reached the right spot in my heart
if I have any. Say, O.M. I must confess that when I finished copying
your QST I was a mess. I bawled like a kid. Well, I’ll tell you, I
threw the old receivers on the table and beat it for the Methodist
Church a couple of blocks away; the preacher had just started his
sermon, and strange to say his subject was “Home the Sweetest Place
on Earth.” I tell you O.M. I just swallowed that sermon whole and
after the service I went down front took the old preacher aside and
told him my troubles. Well, we talked it over and then we went over
to my mother-in-law’s house, wife had not gone to bed yet. We had a
little prayer together, and today we are all back in our little home
again the three happiest kids you ever saw; and best of all radio did
it. Well, I guess you had had enough of this, so CUL.”

HOW I DRIFTED INTO THE GAME

It may be of interest to the reader to learn how I first started
in radio work. Some sixteen years ago when the Electro Importing Co.
put out its first catalog; a little paper covered book which
contained descriptive matter on spark coils, coherers and the like. I
became keenly interested and like the boys of today it was not many
years before I found myself sitting up late at night over a simple
tuning coil and a piece of silicon. About all that could be heard in
those days was NAA on time and weather, and the fellow who got time
signals from Arlington was “going some.” There were but few stations
in New England then, but whenever I found a station I did not fail to
visit it and gain all possible knowledge of this wonderful phenomena.
I spent many spare hours in a station installed by the National Tel.
& Tel. Co., where I helped to construct what we believed to be the
first rotary gap. It was made by mounting brass balls on brass rods
which were inserted in a steel hub. This was quite a novel gap for
those days and produced a very peculiar tone as compared to the old
stationary gap.
In conclusion I want to say that I am not the only person who
believes that radio–amateur radio, mind you–is far from having
reached the limit of new and distinct uses. Preaching by radio is but
one of the many things which the radiophone of the future will do.
——-
* President Cosradio Co.

· United States Early Radio History > Broadcasting After World
War One

Story Maine #2098
Pub Date 4/24/94

HD: PIRATE AND PROPHET
AH: RADIO, RELIGION: The story of two rebels who say they were mistreated.
KE: Pirate
BY: TONY BARTELME
Of the Post and Courier- Paper from Columbia S.C.

A powerful shortwave transmitter beamed the Last Day Prophet’s gruff voice into the heavens where it slammed into a layer of electrically charged gas and bounced back to earth.

“When I speak, he thundered, it’s the word of God!”
Soaked in shortwave static, his voice quieted. I’ve told this over and over again that God gave me , in the spiritual realm, authority over this church- the true church- in all these Southern states. And my influence reaches to the far corners of the world. He was pleading now, almost crying.

We’re getting very close to the final countdown, Call 1-803-538-4202, and you’ll be on the air with the Last Day Prophet of God.

Everyday, R.G. Stair, 60, can be heard on more than a dozen shortwave and AM radio stations from Sacramento, California to Conway.

During one recent broadcast, he said listeners sent him nearly $1 million last year to proclaim his warnings of the coming apocalypse. And he said he’s increasing his presence on the airwaves. Today I wrote three checks for 31,000 dollars signing up radio stations, he told his listeners.

But not too long ago, Stair hoped to have his own shortwave radio station.

From a ship anchored off the coast of Belize, he planned to broadcast his messages of doom across the world.

But those hopes were dashed in January.

In January, while the ship was being prepared at a local yard, federal agents stormed the vessel, claiming transmitters aboard were broadcasting illegal test tones.

The Federal Communications Commission called his vessel a pirate radio ship. Stair and his controversial radio expert, Al Wiener, called the government’s action a crime- the work of the devil- sometimes mentioning in the same breath last year’s violent bungled raid on the Branch Davidian compound in Waco, Texas.

The story of the seizure sheds light on two very different subcultures: One is the world of shortwave broadcasting, where stations broadcast programs across the globe and unlicenced pirates try to hijack the airwaves.

The other is the doomsday movement, which some observers believe will grow dramatically as the year 2000 draws nearer- and possibly trigger potentially dangerous police actions against nontraditional religious groups and Christian extremists.

The Pirate

On any given night, pirates are on the air. Mostly kids, they broadcast music, skits and their own shows, usually on shortwave frequencies. They are called pirates because they don’t own FCC licenses. Some are more energetic than others. One pirate group that calls itself ‘Radio Airplane’ reportedly has a transmitter on the back of a small aircraft.

It’s sort of a game to see if they get caught, said Glenn Hauser, a columnist for Monitoring Times’, a radio magazine popular with shortwave enthusiasts.

Radio piracy isn’t always fun and games though. In Roanoke, VA, a man posing as an air traffic controller broadcast fake instructions to pilots for several weeks before the FCC nabbed him. But the nation’s most famous radio pirate is Al Wiener. As a teenager, Wiener aired music on AM and FM stations from his basement. He had no license, and the FCC eventually arrested him. He was sentenced to one year probation.

Wiener, a lanky man with long brown hair, eventually moved to Maine, opened a natural food store, and bought a legitimate AM station. But, like many small AM stations, he was not allowed to broadcast at night. Wiener went on the air after dark anyway, usually once a month. He did so for three years before the FCC shut him down again.

But Wiener’s real claim to fame was his pirate radio ship, the Sarah. In 1987, he installed radio transmitters aboard a trawler, moved the ship four miles off the coast of New York- outside U.S. territorial waters- and broadcast alternative rock programs.

Once again, the FCC moved in. Agents boarded the ship, seized radio equipment, and arrested Wiener on charges of obstructing government function, charges they later dropped. We want to give him a chance, explained FCC official.

Al is a folk hero to a lot of people who want to open up the airwaves, said Anita Louise McCormick, author of Shortwave Radio Listening for Beginners.

There’s no question the FCC hates my guts, Wiener, 41, said recently. Without the FCC, there would be anarchy on the airwaves, so I think they have an important role. I’m not an anarchist. I love my country. But I think the FCC attacks things they shouldn’t.

About 18 months ago Wiener received a call from a friend, Scott Becken, who operated satellite network. Becker said he had spoken with a radio preacher, R. G. Stair, about financing another radio ship.

“I said, Oh no, not another one” I said I wouldn’t be involved this time unless it was all on the up and up.

The Prophet

During his programs, Stair often reminds listeners he was born in Bethlehem- Bethlehem, PA.

Since he was a teenager, Stair has traveled the country, making the rounds on the evangelist circuits, doing radio shows.

In the late 1970′s, he drove past the Carolina Motel on S.C. Highway 15, four miles north of Walterboro. It was a modest motel, a single story row of rooms, the kind that became obsolete when the interstates were built. In 1978, he paid $45,000 for it.

Stair attracted a small band of followers who moved into the motel and several mobile homes behind it. He also bought a nearby farm. He called his group the “Overcomer Ministry’

He hoped to live a simple life there, like the Mennonites or the Amish. No drinking, swearing, smoking or television. No buying on credit and no doctors. They would live off the land. Women would wear hair long, men would keep it short. Women would wear dresses, men pants.

In 1987 and 1988, not long after Wiener makes the fronts pages with his pirate radio exploits, Stair also began to attract national attention.

He made dramatic predictions: By the end of 1988, the U.S. economy would collapse and the country would be destroyed in a limited nuclear war with the Soviet Union. In his broadcasts, he announced he was creating, ‘cities of refuge’, small farms throughout the South where believers might weather the catastrophe.

The message hit home with some, and a handful of listeners across the country sold many of their possessions and moved to the motel and farm.

Among them were David Foltz and his wife. The one thing that struck me was that there were no big cars. No one was living an outlandish lifestyle, said Foltz, who lived in Stair’s community for two years before moving to a home nearby. He still attends services.

If you had gone to (Jim and Tammy Bakkers) PTL at this time, the dog houses would have been air conditioned, but with Brother Stair, all the money that was coming in was going into radio ministry.

As the contributions poured in, Stair was able to buy more radio time. By mid-1988 he was on nearly 100 stations.

That year, Stair’s predictions and allegations that his group was a cult drew hordes of reporters and television people to the small motel. Foltz said the cult label was unfair.

It hurts the public that reads it, because it creates a stereotype. Just because an organization does something different, it doesn’t mean it’s a cult. I wasn’t brainwashed into their beliefs. I came down there on my free will.

The media scrutiny intensified in July 1988 when a couple from Pennsylvania left Stair’s group after the woman’s baby was born dead. Stair had discouraged her from going to a doctor, even though she had trouble delivering her first child. The Colleton County coroner said the baby probably would have lived had the woman gone to the hospital.

William Alnor, an evangelist and free-lance writer, covered the story for a Pennsylvania newspaper.

He’s always proclaiming the idea of doom, and this serves as a catalyst. They were drawn to him by fear, said Alnor, author of ‘Soothsayers of the Second Advent’.

There are a number of groups out there like this, and they’re popping up more and more because of the year 2000. In the year 1000, people were so worried they were living in caves.

But Foltz said it wasn’t fear of Stair or the end of the world that attracked followers. It’s really about what’s happening with the country. You look around and see what’s going on, and it makes you wonder if maybe the Amish have the right idea.

After Stairs predictions failed to come true, he began to appear on fewer radio stations. For the most part, he stopped talking to reporters. In his broadcasts, he calls them perverted. (He refused repeated requests to be interviewed for this story.) He still preaches that the world will end, but instead of setting dates, he simply says the jig is up soon.

And, he never gave up his goal of spreading this message across the world.

The Plan

The pieces fell together quickly. Within a few months, Stair, Wiener, Becker, Wiener’s friend in the satellite business, had a 140-foot-long ship called ‘The Fury’ and four transmitters from Boston to Halsey and Cannon Boat yard on the Wando River.

Becker, who also run the business side of the ship, renting three transmitters to anyone who wanted air time. Stair would have exclusive use of one shortwave transmitter. They would move the ship to Belize or another Caribbean country. Wiener was in charge of building the radio station. Stair’s followers chipped and sanded paint and did other work on the ship itself.

Wiener said the ocean would act like a huge reflector dish, increasing the power of the shortwave transmitters. Shortwave radio transmitters are beamed 150 miles from the transmitter. Wiener said Stair’s broadcast from the ship would be heard throughout North American and possible in large areas of South America and Europe, where shortwave radio stations are more popular.

Honestly, I saw the hand of God work on that ship, Wiener said. But in less than a year we were able to throw together the people, equipment, and the boat, which was incredible.

Becker and Wiener estimate that Stair pumped $250,000 to $300,000 into the ship. Stair told ‘Monitoring Times’ that he spent $125,000 on the transmitter installation.

Wiener enjoyed working with Stair’s group. The best time we had was at supper, he said. They were people who seemed at peace with themselves. We could be talking about generators and bilge pumps one minute and the glory of God in another breath.

Becker was less enthusiastic. The only way I can describe this group is bizzare.

He said he saw members looking for scraps of food in the trash bin behind a grocery store. He scares people to come and live with them. It gives me the creeps. The women dress in long Quaker or Amish dresses. They walk around like zombies. He’s a David Koresh waiting to happen.

The Bust

It was late December when Johnny Lightning came on the air. One of the FCC’s monitoring stations picked up the transmission. ‘Johnny Lightning was the announcer. He was playing music and there was some chatter said Lawrence Clance, the FCC assistant bureau chief for law. Johnny Lightning was on a frequency normally reserved for government communications, one that’s often used by pirates.

We knew right away we had a pirate radio station, Clance said. The monitoring stations traced the transmission to South Carolina.

In January, FCC agents were dispatched to Charleston. For two weeks they drove around the area in cars packed with equipment that track down radio broadcasts.

At 12:15 a.m. on Jan 14, FCC engineers heard something. It wasn’t Johnny Lightning. It sounded more like test tones. Their direction-finding gear guided them to a dirt road leading to the Halsey & Cannon Boat Yard- and the Fury. They seemed to be tuning it, said Richard Breen, an FCC engineer who tracked the transmission.

Breen and the other FCC engineers didn’t board ship that night. Instead, after discussing their findings with their superiors in Washington, they went to the federal judge and asked for an order allowing them to seize the Fury’s radio equipment.

Assistant U.S. Attorney Joseph P. Griffith Jr. said at 8 a.m. on Jan. 19, gun-totting U.S. Marshals and Coast Guard officers raided the ship. There was no resistance. No one was hurt or arrested. Only one firearm was found.

The FCC paid electricians and neighboring shipyard crew $7,500 to remove the transmitters. Wiener was on board when the raid happened. It felt like evil attached the boat, he said.

The Aftermath

Wiener said the feds went overboard, that seizure was a personal vendetta against him. The station was destroyed, he said, because someone in Washington, D.C. apparently doesn’t like Brother Stair or me.

He said he was asleep during the time the illegal transmissions were alleged to have been made. Besides, the transmitter and generators weren’t working, so it was physically impossible for anyone to broadcast, he said.

The charges are totally unfounded, he said. Even had there been transmissions, he said, the punishment did not fit the alleged crime.

Prosecutors could have sought either a restraining order or a fine.

Why was an entirely legal radio station destroyed without a hearing and due process? What is going on here? Wiener said. A radio station, a printing press of the air, has been smashed.

Stair has since filed a motion in federal court asking the government to return the equipment.

The FCC out of Washington takes a strong view of this kind of deal, particularly in light of who was on board. Griffith answered. The seizure was done entirely at the FCC’s request. I would like to think there were no personal animosities involved.

He said the agency considered criminal prosecution but was concerned it would make Wiener a martyr. Taking equipment was a middle road approach.

Said Clance, “We’re simply in the business of shutting down pirate radio stations.

Apocalypse Later

Immediately after the bust, Wiener left Charleston. We didn’t know if we were going to get shot or arrested. He returned to New York and began working at another radio station. He began writing to newspapers and communications magazines criticizing the FCC’s action.

The bust didn’t slow Stair down either. He bought more air time on radio stations. During these broadcasts Stair asked for more and more money.

My dear friends, Stair told his listeners, this message of hope to the people of God is being heard. They are responding! They are doing it! This is what stirs my heart. They are obeying! I know that makes me enemies. So be it.

A listener from Canada said he put a money order for $1000 in the mail.

Like Wiener, Stair lobbed verbal darts at the government and armed forces, you, you are the Antichrist.

And he hints at future battles with the government. They will come after me. I’m sure they are going to, because I’m a voice out here that they’re going to have to reckon with.

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+The Inventor of Propaganda, The UNCLE, Eddy Lewis Bernays…..my Great Grand Father’s Brother! Whooo-Eeeee! Famous Folk in My Family Trees! ++++++++++++++++++++++1928, “Wrote the BOOK!++++++

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Propganda
by Edward Bernays

(originally published in 1928)
p37
The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits
and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic
society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society
constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of
our country.
We are governed, our minds molded, our tastes formed, our ideas
suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical
result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast
numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to
live together as a smoothly functioning society.
Our invisible governors are, in many cases, unaware of the identity
of their fellow members in the inner cabinet.
They govern us by their qualities of natural leadership, their
ability to supply needed ideas and by their key position in the
social structure. Whatever attitude one chooses toward this
condition, it remains a fact that in almost every act of our daily
lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social
conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively
small number of persons-a trifling fraction of our hundred and twenty
million-who understand the mental processes and social patterns of
the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public
mind, who harness old social forces and contrive new ways to bind and
guide the world.
It is not usually realized how necessary these invisible governors
are to the orderly functioning of our group life. In theory, every
citizen may vote for whom he pleases. Our Constitution does not
envisage political parties as part of the mechanism of government,
and its framers seem not to have pictured to themselves the existence
in our national politics of anything like the modern political
machine. But the American voters soon found that without organization
and direction their individual votes, cast, perhaps, for dozens of
hundreds of candidates, would produce nothing but confusion.
Invisible government, in the shape of rudimentary political parties,
arose almost overnight. Ever since then we have agreed, for the sake
of simplicity and practicality, that party machines should narrow
down the field of choice to two candidates, or at most three or four.
In theory, every citizen makes up his mind on public questions and
matters of private conduct. In practice, if all men had to study for
themselves the abstruse economic, political, and ethical data
involved in every question, they would find it impossible to come to
a conclusion without anything. We have voluntarily agreed to let an
invisible government sift the data and high-spot the outstanding
issue so that our field of choice shall be narrowed to practical
proportions. From our leaders and the media they use to reach the
public, we accept the evidence and the demarcation of issues bearing
upon public question; from some ethical teacher, be it a minister, a
favorite essayist, or merely prevailing opinion, we accept a
standardized code of social conduct to which we conform most of the
time.
In theory, everybody buys the best and cheapest commodities offered
him on the market. In practice, if every one went around pricing, and
chemically tasting before purchasing, the dozens of soaps or fabrics
or brands of bread which are for sale, economic life would be
hopelessly jammed. To avoid such confusion, society consents to have
its choice narrowed to ideas and objects brought to it attention
through propaganda of all kinds. There is consequently a vast and
continuous effort going on to capture our minds in the interest of
some policy or commodity or idea.
It might be better to have, instead of propaganda and special
pleading, committees of wise men who would choose our rulers, dictate
our conduct, private and public, and decide upon the best types of
clothes for us to wear and the best kinds of food for us to eat. But
we have chosen the opposite method, that of open competition. We must
find a way to make free competition function with reasonable
smoothness. To achieve this society has consented to permit free
competition to be organized by leadership and propaganda.
***
p59
Who are the men, who, without our realizing it, give us our ideas,
tell us whom to admire and whom to despise, what to believe about the
ownership of public utilities .. about immigration who tell us how
our houses should be designed, what furniture we should put into
them, what menus we should serve at our table, what kind of shirts we
must wear, what sports we should indulge in, what plays we should
see, what charities we should support, what pictures we should
admire, what slang we should affect, what jokes we should laugh at?
p60
A presidential candidate may be “drafted” in response to “around
popular demand,” but it is well known that his name may be decided
upon by half a dozen men sitting L.. around a table in a hotel room.
p61
A man buying a suit of clothe imagines that he is choosing, according
to his taste and his personality, the kind of garment which he
prefers. In reality, he may be obeying the orders of an anonymous
gentleman tailor in London. This personage is the silent partner in a
modest tailoring establishment, which is patronized by gentlemen of
fashion and princes of blood. He suggest to British noblemen and
others a blue cloth instead of gray, two buttons instead of three, or
sleeves a quarter of an inch narrower than last season. The
distinguished customer approves of the idea.
But how does this fact affect John Smith of Topeka?
The gentleman tailor is under contract with a certain large American
firm, which manufactures men’s suits, to send them instantly the
designs of the suits chosen by the leaders of London fashion. Upon
receiving the designs, with specifications as to color, weight, and
texture, the firm immediately places an order with the cloth makers
for several hundred thousand dollars’ worth of cloth. The suits made
up according to the specifications are then advertised as the latest
fashion. The fashionable men in New York Chicago, Boston, and
Philadelphia wear them. And the Topeka man, recognizing this
leadership, does the same.
Women are just as subject to the commands of invisible government as
men. A silk manufacturer, seeking a new market for its product,
suggested to a large manufacturer of shoes that women’s shoes should
be covered with silk to match their dresses. The idea was adopted and
systematically propagandized. A popular actress was persuaded to wear
the shoes. The fashion spread. The shoe firm was ready with the
supply to meet thee created demand. And the silk company was ready
with the silk for more shoes.
p63
The new profession of public relations has grown up because of the
increasing complexity of modern life and the consequent necessity for
making the actions of one part of the public understandable to other
sectors of the public. It is due, too, to the increasing dependence
of organized power of all sorts upon public opinion. Governments,
whether they are monarchical, constitutional, democratic or
communist, depend upon acquiescent public opinion for the success of
their efforts and, in fact, government is government only by virtue
of public acquiescence. Industries, public utilities, educational
movements, indeed all groups representing any concept or product,
whether they are majority or minority ideas, succeed only because of
approving public opinion. Public opinion is the unacknowledged
partner in all broad efforts.
The public relations counsel, then, is the agent who, working with
modern media of communications and the group formations of society,
brings an idea to the consciousness of the public.
***
p71
The systematic study of mass psychology revealed t7 students the
potentialities of invisible government of society by manipulation of
the motives which actuate man in the group. Trotter and Le Bon, who
approached the subject in a scientific manner, and Graham Wallas,
Walter Lippmann, and others who continued with searching studies of
the group mind, established that the group has mental characteristics
distinct from those of the individual, and is motivated by impulses
and emotions which cannot be explained on the basis of what we know
of individual psychology. So the question naturally arose. If we
understand the mechanism and motives of the group mind, is it not
possible to control and regiment the masses according to our will
without their knowing about it?
p73
If you can influence the leaders, either with or without their
conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which
they sway. But men do not need to be actually gathered together in a
public meeting or in a street riot, to be subject to the influences
of mass psychology. Because man is by nature gregarious he feels
himself to be member of a herd, even when he is alone in his room
with the curtains drawn. His mind retains the patterns which have
been stamped on it by the group influences.
p73
Trotter and Le Bon concluded that the group mind does not think in
the strict send of the word. In place of thoughts it has impulses,
habits, and emotions. In making up its mind, its first impulse is
usually to follow the example of a trusted leader. This is one of the
most firmly established principles of mass psychology. It operates in
establishing the rising or diminishing prestige of
p74
But when the example of the leader is not at hand and the herd must
think for itself, it does so by means of clichés, pat words or images
which stand for a whole group of ideas or experiences. Not many years
ago, it was only necessary to tag a political candidate with the word
interests to stampede millions of people into voting against him,
because anything associated with “the interests” seemed necessary
corrupt. Recently the word Bolshevik has performed a similar service
for persons who wished to frighten the public away from a line of
action.
By playing upon a old cliché, or manipulating a new one, the
propagandist can sometimes swing a whole mass group emotions.
p75
It is chiefly the psychologists of the school of Freud( who have
pointed out that many of man’s thoughts and actions are compensatory
substitutes for desires which has been obliged to suppress. A thing
may be desired not for its intrinsic worth or usefulness, but because
he has unconsciously come to see in it a symbol of something else,
the desire for which he is ashamed to admit to himself. A man buying
a car may think he wants it for purposes of locomotion, whereas the
fact may be that he would really prefer not to be burdened with it,
and would rather walk for the sake of his health. He may really want
it because it is a symbol of social position, an evidence of his
success in business, or a means of pleasing his wife.
This general principle, that men are very largely actuated by motives
which they conceal from themselves, is as true of mass as of
individual psychology. It is evident that the successful propagandist
must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the
reasons which men give for what they do.
p75
Human desires are the steam which makes the social machine work. Only
by understanding them can the propagandist control that vast, loose-
jointed mechanism which is modern society.
p84
… while, under the handicraft of small-unit system of production
was that typical a century ago, demand created the supply, today
supply must actively seek to create its corresponding demand. A
single factory, potentially capable of supplying a whole continent
with its particular product, cannot afford to wait until the public
asks for its product; it must maintain constant touch, through
advertising and propaganda, with the vast public in order to assure
itself the continuous demand which alone will make its costly plant
profitable. This entails a vastly more complex system of distribution
than formerly.
***
p109
No serious sociologist any longer believes that the voice of the
people expresses any divine or specially wise and lofty idea. The
voice of the people expresses the mind of 3 the people, and that mind
is made up for it by the group leaders in whom it believes and by
those persons who understand the manipulation of public opinion. It
is composed of inherited prejudices and symbols and clichés and
verbal formulas supplied to them by the leaders.
Fortunately, the sincere and gifted politician is able, by the
instrument of propaganda, to mold and form the will of the people.
p110
The political apathy of the average voter, of which we hear so much,
is undoubtedly due to the fact that the politician does not know how
to meet the conditions of the public mind. He cannot dramatize
himself and his platform in terms which have real meaning to the
public. Acting on the fallacy that the leader must slavishly follow,
he deprives his campaign of all dramatic interest. An automaton
cannot arouse the public interest. A leader, a fighter, a dictator,
can. But, given our present political conditions under which every
office seeker must cater to the vote of the masses, the only means by
which the born leader can lead is the expert use of propaganda.
Whether in the problem of getting elected to office or in the problem
of interpreting and popularizing new issues, or in the problem of
making the day-to-day administration of public affairs a vital part
of the community life, the use of propaganda, carefully adjusted to
the mentality of the masses, is an essential adjunct of political
life.
p119
It is not necessary for the politician to be the slave to the
public’s group prejudices, if he can learn how to mold the mind of
the voters in conformity with his own ideas of public welfare and
public service. The important thing for the statesman of our age is
not so much to know how to please the public, but know how to sway
the public.
p120
Good government can be sold to a community just as any other
commodity can be sold.
p120
One reason, perhaps, why the politician today is slow to take up
methods which are a commonplace in business life is that he has such
ready entry to the media of communication on which his power depends.
The newspaperman looks to him for news. And by his power of giving or
withholding information the politician can often effectively censor
political news. But being dependent, every day of the year and for
year after year, upon certain politicians for news, the newspaper
reporters are obliged to work in harmony with their news sources.
p123
Propaganda is of no use to the politician unless he has something to
say which the public, consciously or unconsciously, wants to hear.
p123
The criticism is often made that propaganda tends make the President
of the United States so important that he becomes not the President
but the embodiment of the idea of hero worship, not to say deity
worship. I quite agree that this is so, but how are you going to stop
a condition which accurately reflects the desires of a certain part
of the public? The American people rightly senses the enormous
importance of the executive’s office. If the public tends to make of
the President a heroic symbol of that power, that is not the fault of
propaganda but lies in the very nature of the office and its relation
to the people.JOHNNY-JAZZhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/12387330764315163256johnbernays@gmail.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-8297239187211524975.post-3811762892050440012009-05-21T15:38:00.001Z2009-05-21T15:48:15.724ZNIGGER RAP LYRCS AND VIOLENCE WE ARE LIVING IN AN AGE when many, especially the youth, have made an idol of thuggery. The word thug is, by definition, “one of a fraternity of robbers and assassins in India who practiced secret murder as an act of propitiation to the goddess Kali”. The word thug also means “a ruffian and an assassin”. The word ruffian means “a brutal, boisterous fellow; any base, low character, as a robber, etc.” Then the word assassin means “one who slays treacherously or by covert assault; one who kills, or attempts to kill, secretly as the agent of another or others, or for reward”. The word assassinate means “to kill”.

So we see that in all of these definitions of the idol of our age, is nothing but the end goal of murder, robbery, brutality, low character and boisterous vileness. While the youth of today are led about by rap music in all of its variations and think that they have discovered something new, they are simply dupes for demonic powers which have nothing in mind but to kill, steal and destroy.

The mesmerizing powers of the demon goddess Kali are well known worldwide, as the adherents to Kali’s demand for blood sacrifice are still in action today. Having been to India, I remember I was shocked when I first saw men, countless men with their fingernails painted bright red. When I inquired what the reason for this was, I was told that the followers of Kali must offer her blood, and human blood is her first preference. Of course it is claimed that no longer are her followers allowed to commit their murders in order to appease the demands of this wicked and cruel goddess. Now it is stated that her followers offer her goats. However, there is plenty of evidence that thuggery is as common now as it has ever been in that her known followers are still committing murder to appease her demands for blood.

Now, since this type of murder stems back to Hinduism and this goddess, one would think, how in the world could such a thing have anything to do with the passion for murder and bloodshed that is prevailing in the western nations and even worldwide? The truth is that satan has one agenda and he repeats that agenda for all who will fall prey to his wicked devices.

The fascination of the youth with death, the absorption in crime and murder is only too evident that the roots of rap are evil and those who adhere to the ultimate messages are adhering to the demands of goddess spirits every bit as cruel and blood thirsty as Kali, goddess queen of Hinduism.

While youth proudly parade in their shirts and other clothing items which symbolize their faithfulness to their idols, do they ever stop and consider that the thugs they are worshiping are taking them into a lifestyle that can only end in imprisonment, harm to others as well as one’s self, and death? Does anyone stop and consider that the thugs who are enticing them to follow in the same lifestyle are often the victims of the very murder they are enticing others to commit?

How deceptive are the ancient demons that have invaded through the music which is so base and thrilling in its message of destruction whereby the unsuspecting give themselves to demonic powers that are base, vile and completely boisterous in the message they give forth. It does not take much mentality to kill, to steal, to hurt and harm others, it simply takes a fool who will follow the commands of demons who are devising evil on every hand.

Has anyone really stopped to consider that the idolatry of thuggery, which so many have given themselves unto, is nothing but the work of demons under the command of satan? And that while the youth and even some beyond youth are giving themselves over to murder, to robbery, to vileness and rottenness, that they are nothing but the fools who will perish in their sins? The Bible strictly forbids the very things which those involved in thuggery see as their goals in life. When they burn in Hell, will they boast of how many they have murdered, how many they have robbed and violated? Or will they be too absorbed in their own agonies, which will cause them torment, and the burning in the flames of Hell as their evil deeds are replayed over and over before their eyes and they will never escape the judgment they have received for the same?

If you have been deceived by the idolatry of thuggery, you can confess your sins and repent before the Lord Jesus Christ today. He desires to free you from the burden of your sins, and if you repent He will set you free. It is stupid to go in a way of destruction when you could turn from idolatry and turn to the Lord. The Lord will hear you as you pray simply, “Jesus, I ask you to forgive me for my sins and the idolatry of thuggery which has caused those sins; please come into my heart and be my Savior and guide my life.” Amen.

+ The Greatest Racket in History
THE POWER OF THE BLOOD OF JESUS
by H.A. Maxwell Whyte

JESUS was the only begotten of the Father (John 1:14) and His body was formed and fashioned wonderfully in the womb of Mary His mother; but the LIFE that was in Jesus Christ came alone from the Father by the Holy Spirit. Therefore, this life which flowed in the veins of the Lord Jesus Christ came from God. No wonder He said, “I am the LIFE.” God imparted His own life into the Bloodstream of Jesus. Adamic blood is corrupt and was carried by Mary, who declared that Jesus her Son was “God my Saviour” (Luke 1:47). Mary was the chosen carrier of the body of her Son, but all the Blood came from God. I do not know how many categories of human blood have been catalogued by medical science, but I do know that the “Blood type” of the Lord Jesus Christ was entirely different. The Blood that flowed in His veins was perfect, for it was not contaminated by Adam’s sin which brought sin and sickness into human blood.

If Adam had not sinned, he would not have died. But by his sin, he introduced death into the human family. The human body, therefore, became subject to corruption and decay, and death ultimately comes to each one of us. It is at the time of death that the life that is in the blood takes its departure with the spirit and soul of man.

Jesus Christ has no sin in His body, but He allowed Himself to die for the sins of a sinful humanity. He gave the perfect life that was in His perfect Blood to redeem poor mankind who carried death in their bodies -pure Blood for imperfect, contaminated blood. Life for life, for the life is in the blood. This is why Jesus is described as the last Adam. God sent Him to earth in the likeness of sinful Adam, but with pure uncontaminated Blood in his veins. God sent Him so that He might shed that pure Blood of His for the life of humanity. It is highly important for us to understand that the category of Jesus’ Blood was different. Peter rightly describes it as “precious blood” (1 Peter 1:19). It is not possible to evaluate the Blood of Jesus by human values. It is priceless. It is God’s price for the redemption of the whole human race.

A great miracle takes place when a man trusts in Jesus and accepts Him as his personal Savior. Immediately, a great cleansing takes place, and the sin that is in the blood stream is purged. “For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the Lord dwells in Zion” (Joel 3:21). When we receive Jesus, the Bible declares that the heart is cleansed by the Blood of Jesus. This may be more literal than some would dare to believe. If the sin which is in our blood stream is purged and spiritual filth is washed out, then certainly the very heart which pumps the blood may be spoken of as being cleansed. By the miracle of salvation, we receive both eternal life and the divine health of the Son of God. The greatest disinfectant in the world is the Blood of Jesus Christ. It carries the eternal life of God in it.

In this connection it is interesting to note that Satan’s nickname Beelzebub means “Lord of the Flies,” or “Prince of the flies.” Dead blood will quickly attract to itself flies, which will breed corruption in the coagulation blood; but the Blood of Jesus has exactly the opposite effect: it repulses Beelzebub and all his demons. When you put the Blood of Jesus on something, or place someone or something under the Blood by faith, Satan will flee because the Blood of Jesus is alive. The life is in the Blood. So, do not underestimate the power of the Blood of Jesus. In Leviticus 17, we read, “For the life of the flesh is in the blood: and I have given it to you upon the altar to make an atonement for your souls: for it is the BLOOD THAT MAKETH AN ATONEMENT FOR THE SOUL.” The Apostle, therefore, made no mistake when he wrote, “Without shedding of blood is no remission” (Hebrews 9:22).

Some people say that it is enough to have just the name of Jesus. But this is not so. We need the Name and the Blood, for the life is in the Blood. There is power in the name of Jesus only because He shed His own Blood and offered it to His Father, who thereupon gave His power and His authority to His Son (Matthew 28:18). This same power and authority is given to all believers (Luke 10:19), but it only becomes operative as we honor His blood.

When Jesus died upon the cross, His own Blood was shed and sprinkled by Himself as God’s High Priest on behalf of the people. He was crucified at the time of the feast of the Passover, the feast the Jews kept to remember the time when God said, “When I see the blood I will pass over you” (Exodus 12:23). At the very time when the jews were celebrating the first exodus, Jesus was making atonement for the second exodus. To all who will believe in this sacrifice and the efficacy of His precious Blood, there is an exodus from sin and the penalty of sin, which includes sickness. Jesus sprinkled His own Blood and fulfilled the following types: on the altar (the cross) (Exodus 24:6-8); round about the cross (Exodus 29:12-16); on the High Priest’s garments (Exodus 29:20-21). Jesus’ Blood was sprinkled seven times (or the number of perfection) (Leviticus 4:6-7); on the bottom of the cross (Leviticus 4:6-7); on the side of the cross (Leviticus 5:9); round about the cross, i.e. on the earth beneath (Leviticus 7:2); sprinkled before the tabernacle seven times (Numbers 19:4). This last was fulfilled in that the cross and the hill of Calvary were within sight of the temple in Jerusalem, for Calvary was outside the city wall. All these Old testament types were fulfilled in the crucifixion of Jesus, who made Himself our Passover, our vicar, our Savior, and our Blood sacrifice. His Blood alone covers our sins.

If we honor the Blood of Jesus Christ, the Father will smile upon us with forgiveness and cleansing. But this must not be a dull theological honoring, but a continual, active and vital embracing of His Blood. We do not offer our own works; we offer only His Blood. When God sees the Blood of His Son, which we offer as our covering, pardon and plea, God does not see our sin at all; He can only see the covering -the Blood. Therefore we understand that “It is the BLOOD that maketh an atonement for the soul” (Leviticus 17:12).

The Life of God is in the Blood of Jesus, thus, we can not be surprised at the strong reactions from demonic spirits. As soon as the Christian takes the precious Blood of Jesus on his tongue and sings it, talks it, or pleads it, the devil gets terribly disturbed. The devil understands the power of the Blood of Jesus, and he has done everything possible to blind Christians to this truth. Many of the people today who are Christians in name only, will have nothing to do with what they call “a slaughterhouse religion.” Theirs is a religion without the life of God in it, and the devil has no objection to our participating in this kind of religion. But as soon as we honor the Blood of Jesus IN AN ACTIVE SENSE, we stir up demons to a fever pitch. It is like fire in a hornet’s nest.

It is surprising that so little has been taught about the Blood and so little is known about the activity of demon spirits, even within the Christian church. No wise Christian would dare try to cast out demons without faith in the Blood of Jesus. As Christians living in today’s exceedingly wicked world our only hope and salvation is by walking continually in the Blood of Jesus. The fact is that Jesus’ Blood says something to God. The Blood cries out to God, “Our sin is covered! The penalty is paid!” We are redeemed.
SALVATION? YES, JESUS CHRIST IS REAL!!
Dear Jesus, I come to you with all the sins I’ve committed and I beg you to forgive me. I confess that I am a sinner and that I cannot save myself. Please cleanse my body, soul and spirit with your precious blood. I need your help and I ask you to come and live in my heart. I want to serve you, obey your commands and do what is right. I want to live for you everyday, please lead and guide me by your Spirit into righteousness. Thank you Jesus for hearing and answering my prayer. Amen! Read the BIBLE!
JOIN US IN THE WAR TO SAVE SOULS!
ARE YOU tired of a dead church existence? Are you sick of the once a week, song and dance routine? Are you being told the TRUTH by those who call themselves “Men of God”? Why not get bold, why not get radical, why not go ALL THE WAY FOR JESUS!! What are you waiting for, the “rapture”? Souls are slipping Christless into Hell all around you, what are you doing about it? We offer a wide range of newspapers, booklets, tracts and tapes to equip the Christian soldier in the war for souls. Write us today for more information about how you can join the SPIRIT REVOLUTION!

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Thursday, May 21, 2009
PATENTED to KILL in US PATENT OFFICE!
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Thursday, May 21, 2009
The Greatest Racket in History
newswire article reporting global 25.Jul.2006 04:17
genetic engineering | health
GMO Disease Epidemics: (2) Hepatitis B Vaccine
author: Myron (Mike) Stagman, PhD e-mail:e-mail: artemesium@gmail.com
Genetic Engineering is a nightmare technology that has caused many disease epidemics, documented but unpublicized. This is the 2nd in a series revealing the epidemics. It features the horrors of GE MEDICINE. Read and take heed — it may save your health or life.

Myron (Mike) Stagman, PhD
Concerned Citizens Information Network
http://www.ccin.info (environmental website)
http://www.MyronStagman.com
email: artemesium@gmail.com

GMO DISEASE EPIDEMICS:
(2) Hepatitis B Vaccine

I. The Face of Frankenstein’s Monster

Genetic Engineering Biotechnology (GE, GM, GMOs) evades Evolution’s safeguards by injecting genes of one species into a totally unrelated species, something impossible in Nature.

GM evades Evolution’s safeguards, and may therefore give rise to PATHOGENS that can — and HAVE, many times — caused crippling and deadly DISEASE EPIDEMICS — documented but unpublicised.

Genetic Engineering is also ideal for developing horrific biological and other military weapons — sufficient cause to OUTLAW GM.

The Greatest Racket in History (Listen to this !): —

GM contamination is virulent, spread by wind, bird, insect, animals and travelling human beings. Co-Existence with GM is completely impossible, only fools or liars would say differently.

GM has contaminated crops in areas of North America which dwarf the UK and even Western Europe. Planetary contamination is inevitable, if We don’t stop it.

The Biotechnology corporations know oh-so-well how contamination spreads and spreads and spreads.

Now get this: Through their political influence, these Corporations have been able to acquire the obscene, sacrilegious, and indeed revolutionary PATENTS on LIFE-FORMS.

Before these revolutionary Patents on Life, a farmer could have sued — successfully without any doubt — the Biotechnology corporation for having contaminated, poisoned his crops.

However, given these Patents on Life (here, on the seeds), the Corporation can — and DOES, successfully — sue the victimised farmer for (Hold your nose) “infringement of patent”.

[Our tainted, corrupted political systems allow this monstrosity.]

Thus the formula the reader might keep in mind:
GM Contamination + Patents on Life-Forms equals Corporate Ownership Rights in the crops of victimised farmers.

This formula spells the serfdom and ruin of all small family farmers on this planet. (They are the majority of the population in Asia, Africa, and Latin America).

The Chemical-Drug-Biotechnology syndicate and its Enforcers (corrupted governments in the West and Third World, corporation-dominated organisations like the WTO, World Bank, IMF) have started a WORLDWIDE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION.

They want to destroy small family farming, and have only gigantic Corporate GM Plantations with farmers working as serfs.

[This process is underway, especially in South America where the U.S. Military has begun to intervene on behalf of GM Plantations to crush farmer opposition.]

Already, according to the Research Foundation for Science, Technology and Ecology (RFSTE) in New Delhi, 40,000 farmers in India have committed suicide primarily as a result of the Corporate Enforcers’ so-called “free trade” policies — dumping heavily-subsidised Western farm produce onto glutted Indian markets, pushing GM crops, insisting that Patents on Life-Forms be accepted so farmers must sign contracts with GM Corporations and can no longer save seeds, etc.

The Greatest Racket in History — GM Contamination + Patents on Life-Forms equals Corporate Proprietary Rights in the crops of victimised farmers, and spells the serdom and ruin of small family farmers everywhere on this planet.

We MUST OUTLAW GM and PATENTS on LIFE-FORMS — or else !!
(e.g. No more organic, healthy food — you and your children will only be able to eat unsafe GM)

See the Action Plan in Part III designed to OUTLAW GM and PATENTS on LIFE-FORMS.
But beforehand, read about the first in our series of “GM Disease Epidemics”.

– – – – – – – – –

II. The Horror of Genetically-Engineered Medicine and the GM Hepatitis B Vaccine Epidemic

(a) Genetically engineered medicine and vaccines are extremely dangerous and should be outlawed. GM medicine/vaccines are entirely unnecessary as well, and insult the Hippocratic Oath.

[Comment: The Drug Corporations would drop genetically-engineered drugs like a hot potato were it not for the abusive Patent laws (awarding monopolies), especially Patents on Life-Forms, and the corruption of Government which insulates the corporations from serious liability.]

– – – – – – – – – –

(b) Item: London, March 2006 — Six healthy male volunteers were given an experimental drug manufactured by a German biotechnology company, TeGenero. The drug, supposedly intended as an “immune stimulant”, wasgenetically engineered.

It came as little surprise to this observer when it was announced that all 6 men suffered multiple organ failure and nearly died, and that one of them may remain in a coma for a year or more.

One of the 6 victims said he felt like his brain was “on fire”. “I thought my eyeballs were going to pop out.”

Either this victim or another has been nicknamed “the Elephant Man’, because his head swelled out to three times its normal size !!

It was also unsurprising that the BBC, International Herald Tribune (New York Times), etc.,apparently suppressed the fact that the drug was genetically engineered. (Could they conceivably be accused of ignorance? Surely not possible.)

[“Calamitous GM Drug Trial Raises Questions About Modern Science”, GM Watch, Weekly Watch 170, 6 April 2006; “A drug trial catastrophe”, Prof. Joe Cummins, Ban-GEF online newsletter, 19 March 06; “Victims’ agony as ‘Elephant Man’ drugs firm goes bust”, Neil Sears, Daily Mail, 4 July 2006]

– – – – – – – – – – –

(c) The Hepatitus B vaccine was genetically engineered. On account of this vaccine, during the 1990s there were, in the USA alone, more than 17,000 cases of hospitalisations, injuries and deaths, including the deaths of 72 children, reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) of the U.S. government.
[
[Dr. Philip Incao’s testimony to the Health Committee of the Ohio House of Representatives, 1 March 1999]

Note: a former FDA (U.S. government Food and Drug Administration) Commissioner wrote in 1993 in the prestigious medical journal, JAMA, that a study showed “only about 1 percent of serious events attributable to drug reactions are reported to the FDA”.

USA Question: Are serious events attributable to vaccines better reported to VAERS?

UK Question: Is the MMR vaccine genetically engineered? If it is, one can readily understand why AUTISM might conceivably be linked to it.

– – – – – – – – – – –

(d)Labelling, Identification and GM Causation of Diseases

GM drugs are generally (entirely?)unlabelled. This alone is outrageous.

If you want to have a little fun, ask your doctor if the drug he/she is prescribing happens to be genetically engineered. Doctors do not like being asked important questions for which they have not the foggiest notion of an answer.

In the last two decades, any drug that has been associated with particularly nasty adverse reactions, should have been analysed (and its patent searched) for possible GMO content and GM causation of those adverse reactions.

This of course has not been done. (never? probably Never. Ordinary scientists, who are pretty uniformly on ‘Their side’ — they wouldn’t dare. And ‘Our side’ is not bright enough to have thought of it. )

Recommendation: Start doing it now.

– – – – – – – –

(e) Extremely Important Fact: “The third largest cause of death and illness in the [western] world is medical intervention [essentially, prescribed drugs].” — Paul Flynn MP, House of Commons Health Select Committee report on “The Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry”, April 2005, vol. 2, p. 153

Only cancer and heart disease are bigger killers than prescribed drugs. As for heart disease, mark that the arthritis pain reliever, Vioxx, caused an estimated 140,000 heart attacks and up to 55,000 deaths in the USA alone.
[ Dr. David J. Graham, former associate safety director of the FDA; and see “Intimidation, Politics and Drug Industry Cripple U.S. Medicine”, Ritt Goldstein, Inter Press Service, 31 December 2004 ]

Question:Is Vioxx genetically engineered? Will anyone ever do an analysis or search the patent for that information??

Indeed, in the United States (can Europe be any different?)prescribed drugs are surely the leading cause of death and illness, at least equal to cancer and heart disease combined, and quite possibly a multiple of this.

[see “Modern Health Care System is the Leading Cause of Death”, Gary Null PhD, Carolyn Dean MD ND, Martin Feldman MD, et al, http://www.mercola.com]

– – – – – – – – – –

(f) How many drugs are now genetically engineered?

8% of total global pharmaceutical market sales are accounted for by genetically engineered drugs.

[Memorandum by the BioIndustry Association (PI 147), “The Influence of the Pharmaceutical Industry”]

Worse, one-third of all drugs in development are biologics !
[It is unclear whether the Memorandum refers to the UK only, or the Western drug corporations in general. I think the latter.]

This ought to frighten anyone who thinks he or she may ever again see a doctor or hospital.

– – – – – – – – – – –

III. Conclusion and What To Do

Human beings and Nature, as we have known them, cannot survive in a GMO-Frankenstein world.

The nightmare technology of Genetic Engineering Biotechnology, and its incestuous Patents on Life-Forms, must be OUTLAWED.

How To Do It?

There is only one way to overcome this extremely powerful, ruthless Corporation-Government-corporate Mass Media axis.

It is to conduct grassroots Public Education Campaigns to educate and politically activate the General Public, university / college students in particular.

The General Public !! Stop forever talking to the Converted. To get around the corporate media’s suppression and distortion of truth, one must talk to people and go door-to-door with leaflets and vocal messages.
And major efforts must be made to inform and activate university students.

Important Hints:

(1) Concentrate on university students.

And senior citizens.

I speak to you now, elder citizens like myself. Put moral purpose into your lives and help rescue this planet and your grandchildren.

(2) AVOID NGOs and all established organisations, especially large ones. They are not what they seem.

Their hierarchies and decision-making are corporation-influenced if not outright purchased.

Never ever join them. Never ever give them Money.

[see George Monbiot’s very important article in The Guardian, 4 September 2001, “Sleeping with the Enemy: Consumer and Environmental Groups are Getting into Bed with Big Corporations]

[Note: In developing countries there are some exceptions, but very very very few in the West. If by a miracle one of them ever conducts a genuine and sensible public education campaign, then you can help out. But NEVER join or give money to them.]

The environmental field especially is riddled with wealthy, prestigious, deceptive organisations adept at dilutng and derailing environmental causes, GM in particular.

[I am thinking at this moment of one such organisation I have observed over a long period of time, in my view a very slick and dangerous FOE of environmentalism, originally created by polluting Corporations to deal with the growing environmental movement.
Don’t go anywhere near this one.]

When they talk about being ‘practical’ and seeking ‘Coexistence’ with GM, let a red flag go up.

Nothing short of OUTLAWING GENETIC ENGINEERING and PATENTS ON LIFE-FORMS will save us and our planet.

Do your educational work as individuals or in small groups of people you know.

In a little of your SPARETIME (perhaps 3 or 4 hours a week, but regularly, as part of an ethical life-style):

Educate and activate the Public by writing and telephoning and just talking to your family members, friends and acquantances;

Write letters and make telephone calls to local, regional and national media;

Write, call and especially visit your legislative representatives and other government personnel, and

Take appropriate Direct Action.

Good Luck to You.

P.S. For a detailed Action Plan on conducting education/activation campaigns (e.g. composing A4 leaflets for distribution, lobbying your legislative representative) see “Creating a Grassroots Democracy While Outlawing Genetic Engineering” on the Indymedia Biotech website. Or email me and request it.

For extensive information on the casualties and unprecedented dangers of Genetic Engineering, see “Genetic Engineering Fact-Sheet” on the website of the Concerned Citizens Information Network, http://www.ccin.info

homepage: homepage: http://www.ccin.info

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US Patent 5733540 – Protection from viral infection via colonization of mucosal membranes with genetically modified bacteria

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

1. Field of the Invention

This invention relates to the manipulation of the bacterial flora normally residing harmlessly on mucosal surfaces to interfere with infectious processes. Specifically, this invention provides for modification of non-pathogenic floral bacteria to confer upon them the capacity to bind to (and functionally inactivate) specific viruses. Although this disclosure describes a method of preventing infection by viruses which infect through mucosal surfaces, the skilled practitioner will recognize that the invention may potentially be applied to any pathogen which infects at a mucosal surface, including bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

2. Information Disclosure

Cytoplasmic expression of heterologous proteins by bacteria has been widely practiced for well over two decades. However, expression of heterologous proteins specifically onto the external surfaces of bacteria has been achieved only in the past few years. Surface expression systems for both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria are known, e.g., U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867, and WO 93/18163.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

This invention provides for a method of protecting an animal from a viral infection comprising contacting a mucosal surface of the host with an amount of transformed bacteria sufficient to colonize the mucosal surface and to protect the animal from viral infection, said bacteria having been transformed with genetic material so as to confer upon the bacteria the capacity to bind the virus. More specifically, this invention provides for transformed bacteria that bind virus or other pathogens using naturally occurring receptors, domains of receptors or antiviral antibodies that are the products of the genetic material.

Preferred hosts are humans. Where the naturally occurring receptors are known, genes encoding those receptors may be used to transform the bacteria. When the specific viral/host receptors are not known, genes encoding antiviral antibodies or fragments thereof may be used to transform the bacteria. For example, for retroviruses that are covered with human leukocyte antigens �HLA DR!, antibodies against these antigens are useful. Accordingly, this invention can be used against rotavirus, papillomavirus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytia virus, corona virus, cytomegalovirus, coxsackievirus, echovirus, hepatitis A virus, rhinovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, poliovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, parainfluenza virus and herpes simplex virus using bacteria able to bind to conserved determinants on their respective capsids.

The bacteria may also be modified to express a specific carbohydrate moiety which serves as the receptor for the virus onto its normal surface proteins. For example the bacteria may be transformed with genetic material which causes the addition of sialic acid which permits the bacteria to bind to an influenza virus.

The bacteria may also be modified to cause fusion between the bacterial membrane and the viral envelope, if present. An example is the transformation of bacteria so that it can fuse with bound viral particles through a fusogenic domain engineered into the virus-binding polypeptide.

Colonization of mucosal membranes is an essential element of this invention and it is preferred that the transformed bacteria is conferred with sufficient selective advantage to permit it to compete effectively with resident bacteria to allow said transformed bacteria to successfully colonize and survive indefinitely on a selected mucosal surface. One selection advantage is an enhanced ability to adhere to a host mucosal surface through a domain in the heterologous protein which binds to a determinant on a selected mucosal surface. Selective advantage might also be conferred by the use of antibiotic resistant transformed bacteria where antibiotics are co-administered with the transformed bacteria. Other advantages include the use of products that degrade the biofilm of the mucosal membrane. Such products would include DNAses, peptidases, and hyaluronidases.

Preferred mucosal surfaces are in the following organs: nasopharynx, oropharynx, esophagus, small intestines, large intestines, rectum, vagina, and penis.

Transformed bacteria are applied to a mucosal surface through the use of a liquid solution, foam, suppository, sponge, or capsule. Where the target mucosal layer is in the vagina, the bacteria can be transformed to target sexually transmitted pathogens such as but not limited to HIV, HPV, HSV, gonorrhea, syphilis and chlamydia. Nonbacteriocidal spermicides might be co-administered with the bacteria.

The invention also embraces a means to prevent the spread of a viral pathogen from an infected individual to others with transformed bacteria by administering an amount of transformed bacteria sufficient to colonize the mucosal surfaces of the infected individual wherein said bacteria bind and inactivate infectious viral particles exiting the infected host. The modifications and targets being as stated above.

The transformation of the bacteria can be either in vitro or in vivo whereby the resident musocal bacterial flora of a host is transformed with a desired foreign genetic material by directly introducing into resident microfloral bacteria a genetic vector said vector conferring the ability of the bacteria to bind and inactivate viral pathogens of the host and thereby affording protection of the host from infection by the viral pathogen. Examples of vectors include replication defective bacteriophage.

The invention further includes inactivating infectious viral particles in suspect water supplies by the addition of engineered bacteria capable of binding and irreversibly inactivating specific viruses.

In addition to methods, this invention also embraces compositions of matter comprising a bacteria selected for its ability to colonize the mucosal membrane of a host and transformed to express a host receptor or an antibody specific for a target virus on its cell surface in an amount sufficient to bind and inactivate the target virus. The preferred compositions are as described above for the various methods.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates the ViroShieldâ„¢ concept. Viruses normally gain entry into a host by binding to specific receptors expressed on the host cell surface. Expression of the same receptors on the surface of bacteria on mucosal surfaces will cause the majority of the viruses to bind to the bacteria instead, where they are functionally inactivated, thus preventing infection of the underlying host cells.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION

A. Introduction.

Most viruses infect via mucosal surfaces. A review of this process can be found in Murray, P. R., et al., Medical Microbiology, 2nd Edition, (hereinafter Murray, et al., 1994). The creation of a virus blocking bacterial flora in the mucosal surfaces by allowing colonization of bacteria transformed to bind and inactivate virus is particularly advantageous. Colonization of mucosal layers is a routine undertaking. Most mucosal layers are typically teeming with bacteria, and changes in flora attendant to pathogenic bacterial infection and administration of antibiotics is a common event. The routine nature of the floral changes on mucosal surfaces is a key advantage of the invention. The following discussion will also provide means to enhance the ability of transformed bacteria to colonize mucosal layers.

B. General methods

The techniques of amplification of genetic sequences with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), cutting and splicing DNA into plasmids, transformation of bacteria with plasmids, and assays for antibody binding are all well known biotechnology methods and detailed descriptions of these methods can be found in a number of texts including Protocols in Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology of the Cell, and Sam brook, et al., Molecular Cloning-A Laboratory Manual, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. 1989.

C. Viral targets.

The following is a list of viral targets. They are categorized by their respective organs of entry.

1. Upper respiratory tract (URT).

A large number of viruses infect the naso- and oropharynx, either via air droplets or direct contact. These include human rhinoviruses (HRV), adenovirus, coxsackievirus, influenza, parainfluenza, respiratory syncytia virus (RSV), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV).

2. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

These viruses include rotavirus, Norwalk agent, hepatitis A (HAV), poliovirus and other picornaviruses.

3. Vaginal: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) 2, CMV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV).

D. Viral receptors.

A virus must enter a host cell to replicate. To enter a cell, viruses require surface receptors on the host cell (Murray, et al., 1994). More specifically, the virus must first bind to a molecule on the surface of the target cell. The receptors for a number of viruses have been determined in recent years. The following is a representative list and is not meant to be a limitation of the invention.

1. HRV, major group→ICAM-1, domains 1 and 2 (Lineberger, D. W., et al., Virus Research, 24(2):173-86, 1992.)

2. Influenza virus→sialic acid

3. HIV→CD4, domains 1 and 2

4. Poliovirus→PVR (poliovirus receptor, an immunoglobulin superfamily protein)

5. EBV→CD21 (complement receptor 2, the receptor for C3d)

6. HSV→heparin sulfate

7. HBV→IgA receptor

8. Adenovirus→Vitronectin receptor

E. Mucosal Surfaces are Normally Colonized by Bacterial Flora (Murray, et al., 1994)

The upper respiratory tract (URT) consists of the nasopharynx, oropharynx (oral cavity and larynx), paranasal sinuses, and the middle ear. The paranasal sinuses and the middle ear are normally sterile. However, the stratified squamous epithelium of the naso- and oropharynx are teeming with a varied microbial flora. The microflora of the nose consists mainly of coagulase-negative staphylococci, with some diphtheroids (aerobic and anaerobic), and nonhemolytic streptococci. The most prominent members of the flora of the mouth and pharynx are the alpha streptococci. Some gram-negative anaerobes (esp. Bacteriodes) and other cocci are also found.

The colon contains the largest total population of bacteria of any mucosal surface in the human body. It is estimated that >1011 bacteria/g of colonic content exists in healthy individuals, representing over 400 species. Anerobic bacteria outnumber aerobic ones by a factor of 100-1,000. Bacteroides is the predominant genus. Bifidobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococci, and Lactobacilli are also prominent. The small intestine is populated by a similar profile of organisms as the colon, but at much lower numbers. The stomach and proximal small intestine are nearly sterile, while the distal small intestine contains approximately 1/10 of the bacterial content of the colon.

The vaginal mucosa is also colonized by a large number of bacteria. Lactobacilli are the predominant species in the normal menarchal vaginal microflora, being present in nearly 100% of normal women. Lactobacilli are facultative anaerobes, and produce large amounts of lactic acid as the end products of sugar fermentation. This creates an acidic environment which is not suitable for many bacterial strains.

F. ViroShieldâ„¢: Prevention of pathogen binding to host cells will prevent infection

Since viruses require binding to a receptor on the target cell surface for infection, strategies directed at inhibiting the interaction of a virus with its host receptor should be effective at preventing infection. The use of a bacterial shield against viral pathogens on mucosal surfaces is termed a ViroShieldâ„¢.

The concept of the ViroShieldâ„¢ type bacteria can be illustrated by the viral agents causing the common cold. The viral agents for the common cold are mainly consisting of the rhinovirus major group which bind to the ICAM-1 receptor in humans. Soluble ICAM-1 molecules expressed through recombinant DNA technology have been found to be effective in inhibiting HRV binding to susceptible cells and preventing infection (Martin, S., et al., Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 37(6):1278-84, 1993, hereinafter Martin, et al., 1993).

Approximately 60 ICAM-1 molecules can bind to a single HRV virion (Hoover-Litty, H. and Greve, J. M., J Virol, 67(1):390-7, 1993). This correlates with the fact that the HRV capsid is an icosahedral complex composed of 60 copies of each of the viral coat proteins (Smith, T. J., et al., J Virol, 67(3):1148-58, 1993). The actual receptor binding site on the HRV capsid was found to be a surface depression or “canyon” by X-ray crystallography (Oliveira, M. A., et al., Structure, 1 (1):51-68, 1993). This canyon is sufficiently small in size such that antibody molecules cannot fit, and this is one reason why humans are susceptible to repeated infections by HRV since the virus is resistant to antibody binding at this key neutralization site.

After binding to ICAM-1, a conformational change is induced in the capsid which causes the release of the viral RNA into the host cell (Martin, et al., 1993). Soluble ICAM-1 molecules are relatively ineffective at inducing capsid conformational change and thus functional inactivation of virions (Martin, et al., 1993, and Crump, C. E., et al., Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 38(6):1425-7, 1994 hereinafter Crump, et al., 1994); however, chimeric molecules combining the HRV-binding domains (1 and 2) of ICAM-1 and constant regions of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules (IgA, IgG, or IgM) showed some effect. This effect is thought to be due to the ability of chimeric molecules to dimerize (IgA and IgG) or multimerize (IgM) via the association of the Ig domains. Multimeric receptors more closely resemble the natural state on cell surfaces, where several immobilized receptors binding to a virion may induce conformational distortion to the capsid to cause vital RNA
release.

Expression of ICAM-1 on the external surface of mucosal bacteria is an extension of the multimeric-molecule strategy, with key additional benefits. Since bacteria are considerably larger than viral particles, bound HRV should be readily immobilized onto the bacterial surface. A key advantage of this invention is that only a few ICAM-1 receptors must be bound in order to effectively immobilize and neutralize a virion, whereas strategies involving soluble ICAM-1 molecules potentially must cover all 60 binding sites in order to ensure complete neutralization of a single virion. Furthermore, ICAM-1 molecules on bacterial surface are efficient in inducing capsid conformational change because simultaneous binding of several ICAM-1 molecules immobilized on a bacterial surface to several faces of a vital capsid will distort the geometry of the viral capsid and lead to conformational change and premature viral RNA release.

Viral RNA released into the bacteria are readily degraded by the abundant nucleases within bacterial cytoplasm. This leads to irreversible inactivation of viral particles, which is a key advantage of this invention because binding itself is a reversible process, and binding of soluble ICAM-1 molecules, chimeric molecules, or other drugs to HRV without functional inactivation would still leave a significant fraction of viral particles free to bind host cells at any given time. With ViroShieldâ„¢ type mucosal bacteria, each bacteria is capable of irreversibly inactivating a large number of viral particles, ensuring that the majority of any vital inoculum would be eliminated before they can infect underlying host cells.

Accordingly, soluble CD4 molecules have also been shown to be effective in binding and preventing infection of HIV to target cells in vitro (Orloff, S. L., et al., J Virol, 67(3):1461-71, 1993). However, results of clinical trials with intravenously administered soluble CD4 molecules have been disappointing (Moore, J. P., et al., Aids Res Hum Retroviruses, 9(6):529-39, 1993). The reason is not due to lower binding affinity of primary vs. laboratory isolates of HIV to soluble CD4, but rather that primary isolates are less prone to inactivation after binding to soluble CD4 (Ashkenzai, A., et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci, 88:7056-7060, 1991 and Turner, S., et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 89(4):1335-9, 1992).

The expression of CD4 on bacterial surfaces should facilitate irreversible inactivation of all strains of HIV. In particular, CD4 expression on the surface of Lactobacilli on the vaginal mucosa would be effective at preventing HIV infection through vaginal intercourse. E. coli similarly transformed would be effective against HIV transmission via rectal intercourse.

An important point to keep in mind is the distinction between infection and clinical disease. For any pathogen, there is a minimum inoculating dose necessary to cause clinical symptoms from an infection. Exposure to an inoculum below this dose normally does not lead to clinical disease. Therefore, to successfully prevent disease, a strategy does not necessarily need to inactivate every particle of an inoculating dose of a virus, but rather to reduce the number of viable viral particles below the minimum infectious dose.

Since the ViroShieldâ„¢ approach aims to prevent entry of a viral pathogen into a host, it not only prevents clinical disease, but should prevent infection altogether. Standard vaccines do not prevent entry of viral pathogens into a host. This may be important as certain viruses are known to trigger autoimmune processes in some hosts, regardless of whether they cause clinical infection.

Potential applications:

______________________________________ Virus Receptor Portal of Entry Suitable Bacterial Host ______________________________________ HRV ICAM-1 URT URT flora- Strept gordonii or Influenza sialic acid URT/LRT Staph xylosus Adenovirus Vitronectin URT Strept or Staph HIV CD4 vaginal mucosa Lactobacillus HSV 2 heparin sulfate vaginal Lactobacillus ______________________________________

G. Neutralization of pathogens upstream of their infection site

The only mucosal surfaces in the body relatively free of bacterial colonization are that of the stomach, upper small intestines, and lower respiratory tract. A few important viruses infect at the upper small intestines, the most significant of which are rotavirus and poliovirus (Murray, et al., 1994). Since bacterial counts in this area are low, even if all of these bacteria express receptors for the virus, it may not be possible to completely inactivate an inoculating dose of that virus. However, to reach the small intestines, viral particles must first enter the oral cavity and travel through the esophagus both are heavily colonized by bacteria. Therefore, it may be possible that bacteria on oropharyngeal/esophageal mucosal surfaces expressing viral receptors can absorb/inactivate enough viral particles to significantly decrease the infectious inoculum delivered to the small intestines.

Viruses that infect the lower respiratory tract include influenza, parainfluenza, and RSV (Murray, et al., 1994). Vital particles inhaled into respiratory tract via droplets will settle out along various portions of the respiratory mucosa depending on the physical properties of the virion, droplet, and flow. Engineered bacteria along these viruses’ path through the URT may absorb/inactivate sufficient numbers of vital particles to reduce the inoculating dose reaching the lower respiratory tract below the minimum required for clinical disease.

H. Prevention of exit of pathogens to infect other uninfected hosts.

This invention also provides for a method of preventing the exit of the virus from an infected host. Preventing a pathogen from exiting an infected host would mean preventing spread of the pathogen to a number of uninfected individuals, which would be extremely important from a public health viewpoint. Rapid spread of a pathogen may wipe out entire villages in third world countries. ViroShield# should be useful even in already infected hosts by absorbing/inactivating viral particles as they exit the host. Even if ViroShieldâ„¢ is unable to prevent infection of rotavirus or poliovirus for reasons discussed above (section G), engineered bacteria in the colon may still absorb/inactivate viral particles before they exit the host.

I. Use of engineered bacteria in potentially-contaminated water to inactivated virions

In third-world countries, viruses may be transmitted rapidly through inadequately treated water supplies. Fecal-orally transmitted viruses, such as rotavirus, may exist in low titers in the drinking water of a village after contamination by a single infected individual, and go on to infect a number of uninfected individuals. Non-pathogenic bacteria expressing rotavirus receptors may be added to suspect water supplies to absorb/inactivate viral particles in these settings, as long as the ingestion of the engineered bacteria is not harmful to a host. This approach should be an effective and economical means of quickly controlling orally-transmitted viruses in third-world countries.

J. Sources of genes which confer virus-binding capacity

The capacity to bind a virus may be conferred onto a bacteria in at least three ways. The first is by making the bacteria express on its surface the normal host receptor for the virus, such as ICAM-1 for HRV (major group) and CD4 for HIV. These are normal human proteins and the complete sequences of many of these genes have been determined and are stored in the database GeneBank. An advantage to this approach is that it is not readily avoided by viral mutation. If the virus mutates such that it no longer binds to the receptor expressed on bacteria, it would also lose its ability to bind to its target cell and thus no longer be infectious.

The second method is by expressing an antibody fragment (or any peptide with the capacity to bind a specific target on the surface of the virus) on the bacterial surface against a conserved determinant on the viral surface, such as VP4 on poliovirus, or gp120 on HIV. Antibody fragments (and peptides) against essentially any antigen can now be selected from a phage-display library (Marks, J. D., et al., J Biol Chem, 267(23):16007-10, (1992)).

Once appropriate clones are found, the gene coding for the antibody fragments can then be isolated and used. In addition, it was recently found that enveloped viruses, in the process of budding out of a host cell, carry along on their envelope certain host surface proteins, such as HLA DR on HIV (Arthur, et al, Science, 258(5090):1935-1938, (1992)). Thus, the human HLA DR molecule is a normal constituent of the HIV envelope. Antibody fragments directed against a conserved epitope of the HLA DR molecule may be capable of binding all isolates of HIV, and would be particularly effective in preventing male-to-female HIV spread when expressed on the surface of bacteria on the vaginal mucosa, or HIV transmission via anal intercourse when the engineered bacteria is applied to the rectum.

The third means of binding a virus by a bacteria is through the expression of certain carbohydrate moieties on the bacterial surface. A number of viruses use carbohydrate moieties as the receptor for entry into a host cell. One prominent example is the influenza virus which binds to sialic acid. Bacteria may be made to produce the enzyme sialic acid transferase in its cytoplasm which would lead to addition of sialic acid residues on normal surface proteins, thus causing influenza viruses to bind to said bacteria. The complete gene sequences of many bacterial carbohydrate transferases are known and appear in the literature.

K. Expression Systems for surface expression in bacteria

The expression of heterologous proteins on the surface of bacteria generally takes advantage of the normal surface proteins of the bacteria. It is becoming known that certain sequences within proteins direct them for export out of the bacterial cytoplasm, while others help to anchor a protein to the cell membrane. Hybrid proteins are created in which a heterologous protein sequence replaces the exposed portion of a normal surface protein, leaving the localization signal sequences intact. Several outer membrane proteins have been exploited as targeting vehicles for the localization of heterologous proteins, including the E. coli outer membrane protein maltoporin (LamB), E. coli pilin proteins K88ac and K88ad, E. coli outer membrane porins PhoE, OmpA, and OmpC, and the S. typhimurium Flagellin and TraT lipoprotein (U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867).

A more detailed discussion of surface expression of proteins on the surface of gram-negative bacteria may be found in U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867, and for gram-positive bacteria in PCT WO 93/18163.

1. Construction of Vectors

Plasmids are circularized DNA molecules commonly found in bacteria. They replicate independently from the bacterial host genome via an origin of replication (ori) site. Genes inserted into a plasmid are readily transcribed if placed downstream of appropriate promoter sequences. Certain promoter sequences exist which are regulated by external factors such as the molecule IPTG. A number of plasmids have been optimized for individual bacterial host strains, most notably E. coli. Plasmids have been constructed for surface expression of heterologous proteins in E. coli (e.g. pTX101 as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867), Streptococcus gordonii (e.g. pVMB20-GP232 transformation system, as described in PCT/US93/02355), and others. Both systems contain a signal sequence which directs a polypeptide to the cell surface, with an insert site for the desired heterologous gene, and an antibiotic resistance gene to help in selection of transformed bacteria. Other
suitable streptococci include the lactic streptococci which have been widely transformed (De Vos, FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 46:281-295 (1987)).

Starting from the appropriate vector plasmid for each selected bacterial host, the plasmid will be digested with appropriate restriction enzymes to expose the cloning site. Then the desired heterologous gene will be ligated into the plasmid.

2. Transformation of bacterial cells

Appropriate bacterial host strains are selected for individual pathogens, heterologous protein or molecule, mucosal surface, and expression plasmid combination. The bacterial host will be rendered competent for transformation using standard techniques, such as the rubidium chloride method. Once transformed with the recombinant plasmid containing the desired heterologous gene, the bacteria will be grown in the appropriate media (e.g. LB media with 0.2% glucose). Transformed bacteria will be selected by adding the antibiotic to which the plasmid contains a resistance gene such that only transformed bacteria would survive.

3. Demonstration of expression of desired heterologous molecule on bacterial surface

Expression of the heterologous gene can be constitutive or induced by stimulating the promoter to which it is attached, such as with IPTG. Surface expression of the heterologous molecule will be demonstrated by staining the bacteria with fluorescent-labeled antibodies against the desired molecule, looking for a surface fluorescence pattern. Furthermore, binding of the target pathogen by the transformed bacteria can be demonstrated by fixing the transformed bacteria onto a slide, incubating with the target pathogen, then staining with fluorescent antibodies against the target pathogen in one color (e.g. red), and against the transformed bacteria in another color (e.g. green), showing that the target pathogens (red) are closely associated with the transformed bacteria (green).

L. Irreversible inactivation of bound viruses

To ensure inactivation of the virus after binding to the transformed bacteria, the process of binding must trigger concomitant release of viral genetic material. In this way, bacterial nucleases can degrade the viral genetic material, thus irreversibly inactivating the virus. Many viruses, such as HRV, release their genetic material after binding to immobilized receptors on the target cell surface through a conformational shift of the viral capsid (Martin, et al., 1993). This situation should be successfully mimicked by expression of the receptor on the surface of bacteria. Some viruses, such as HIV and influenza, contain fusogenic domains in their coat proteins which facilitate release of genetic material after binding (Murray, et al., 1994). Different mechanisms are engineered into bacteria to ensure release of genetic material and thus irreversible inactivation of specific viruses.

M. Successful Colonization of Engineered Bacteria

Colonization of mucosal membranes with non-recombinant bacteria is well-known. It was optimally achieved by co-administering antibiotics along with bacteria resistant to that antibiotic (Freter, R., et al., Infection and Immunity, 39(2):686-703, 1983). Under normal conditions colonization disappears within 1-2 weeks after antibiotics are discontinued, as the resident microflora recovers and reestablishes itself (Bennet, et al., 1992). To enhance colonization the following three methods are suggested.

The first method is to repetitively select for rapid colonizing bacteria on animal or human mucosal layers. For example, one would apply a wildtype bacterial strain to a mucosal surface and repetitively isolate and in vitro culture bacteria, returning at each step to the mucosal surface. Ultimately, an enhanced colonizing bacterium is obtained.

The second method is to have the recombinant bacteria express fusion proteins on their surface, which consist of a virus-binding domain and a host-binding domain. The host-binding domain will allow the bacteria to bind to certain determinants (protein or carbohydrate) on a selected host mucosal surface with high affinity, thus conferring the bacteria a slight survival advantage over the resident microflora. This has the added advantage of ensuring continued co-expression of the virus-binding domain, which would otherwise serve the bacteria no intrinsic survival benefit and therefore its expression may otherwise dwindle with time.

The third method is to induce the already resident microflora themselves to express the virus-binding protein by introducing the gene via bacteriophage. Bacteriophage has been used successfully to introduce genetic material into bacteria for some time. A number of bacteriophage vectors have been developed for different bacteria. Lactobacillus is likely the most suitable strain for vaginal mucosa and bacteriophage vectors optimized for lactobacillus are available for this invention. A bacteriophage vector has recently been developed for Lactobacillus gasseri based on the temperate bacteriophage φadh (Raya, R. R., et al., J Bacteriology, 174(17):5584-5592, 1992 and Fremaux, C., et al., Gene, 125:61-66, 1993). This vector undergoes site-specific integration into the host chromosome at defined phage (attP) and bacterial (attB) attachment sites. Optionally, the fusion gene may be placed under control of a strong promoter optimized for lactobacillus into the
vector, along with a `suicide` gene under control of an inducible promoter.

Certain agents may also be added to a unit dose of the bacteria to aid in colonization. Many bacteria on mucosal surfaces secrete capsular materials which coalesce to form a biofilm which covers the entire mucosal surface. It may be beneficial to add an enzyme which digests this biofilm material to promote penetration of the engineered bacteria into the biofilm for more successful colonization. The enzymes include DNAses, peptidases, collagenases, hyaluronidases, and other carbohydrate degrading enzymes. Antibiotics (to which the engineered bacteria itself is not susceptible) may also be added to decrease the number of resident bacteria on the mucosal surface in order to make room for the engineered bacteria.

N. Persistent Expression of Heterologous Protein

As mentioned above, theoretically, expression of a foreign gene which serves a bacteria no purpose would likely dwindle over time, and the foreign gene would eventually be lost (Cardenas, L. and Clements, J. D., Vaccine, 11(2):126-135, 1993). To enhance persistent expression of the heterologous protein construct, an incentive may be created for the bacteria to express the gene. One way is the approach outlined above: create a fusion protein with virus-binding and host-binding domains so that the host-binding capability would confer a selective advantage to the bacteria to ensure the fusion proteins persistent expression. Another approach may be to create an internal requirement for the heterologous protein such that transformed bacteria that stop expressing the protein would die.

0. Vehicles for delivery/dosing regimen

Delivery of engineered bacteria to a desired mucosal surface depends on the accessibility of the area and the local conditions. Engineered bacteria may be placed in a saline solution for delivery to the naso- and oropharynx, or in a foam for delivery onto the vaginal or rectal mucosa. Mucosal surfaces less readily exposed–e.g. esophagus and trachea–may require a more viscous vehicle such as glycerin or sugar which facilitates the coating of the lining as it travels down the tract. Access to the small intestines and colon will require survival through the acid conditions of the stomach, hydrolytic enzymes secreted by the pancreas, and the antimicrobial effects of bile. Protective capsules have been suggested for protecting bacteria through the upper GI transit (Henriksson, A., et al., Appl Environ Microbiol, 57(2):499-502, 1991, hereinafter Henriksson, et al., 1991). It has been found that some strains in the colonic flora are inherently capable of
surviving these conditions and therefore would be suitable for use in the GI tract.

Bacteria are self-replicating, so theoretically if an engineered bacteria successfully colonizes a mucosal surface, it should persist indefinitely. However, numerous factors may limit the indefinite survival of an engineered bacterial population on a given mucosal surface, the most significant factor being the fierce competition for space by a number of different bacteria on any mucosal surface. Therefore, it is envisioned that applications of engineered bacteria to a mucosal surface will need to be repeated on a regular basis; optimal dosing intervals are routine to determine, but will vary with different mucosal environments and bacterial strain. The dosing intervals can vary from once daily to once every 2-4 weeks. Oral administration of 108 -1011 viable bacteria has produced transient colonization of colonic mucosa (Henriksson, et al., 1991 ). It is expected that colonization of the URT and vaginal mucosa will require less, as low as 106 viable
bacteria, since these surfaces are more directly accessible and do not pose the acid and other harsh conditions of the upper GI tract.

To deliver genes directly into bacteria already resident on a mucosal surface, bacteriophage which specifically infect a selected bacteria will be used as the vector. Bacteriophage are viruses which infect bacteria. Examples include bacteriophage lambda, M13, and T7 which all infect Escherichia coli, and φadh which infects Lactobacillus gasseri. The nucleic acid of the selected bacteriophage may be manipulated such that the heterologous gene(s) replaces the genes coding for bacteriophage coat proteins, rendering the bacteriophage replication-defective. Adding these recombinant DNA molecules into cell lysates containing functional bacteriophage proteins will lead to assembly of functional bacteriophage particles carrying the heterologous gene(s). These replication-defective bacteriophage particles can then be introduced onto a desired mucosal surface to infect selected floral bacteria. The typical dosage would be 108 to 1012 PFU/ml applied to the mucosal
surface. The proportion of solution to the treated surface should approximate 0. 1 to 1.0 ml per square centimeter of mucosal surface. The vehicle would be similar to the vehicle described above for the bacteria.

P. Situations particularly suited for this invention

1. To prevent infection from viruses for which no effective vaccine is presently available: HIV, HPV, HSV, Hepatitis A Virus, Varicella Zoster Virus (chickenpox), Rotavirus, etc.

2. Any individual who wants to minimize his/her risk of contracting viral URIs/influenza, especially those who travel frequently, work at public places (healthcare providers, school teachers, etc.), have young children, and those with important upcoming events who cannot risk being ill.

3. Immunosuppressed individuals-since ViroShieldâ„¢ represents a completely additional layer of protection on the mucosal surfaces, it does not rely on normal function of the immune system, and in fact should work in conjunction with the immune system.

4. Third world countries where administration of vaccines may be difficult and unreliable; ViroShieldâ„¢ against rotavirus would be particularly useful in these situations.

5. Individuals with allergic reactions to certain components in a vaccine preparation, such as eggwhite proteins in the preparation of the flu vaccine.

6. Individuals traveling to third-world countries where certain viruses are endemic, such as Hepatitis A and Poliovirus.

7. Individuals with significant risk factors for sexually-transmitted diseases.

8. Protection of livestock animals from pathogenic viral infection.

Q. Definitions

Bacteria: Minute, unicellular prokaryotic organisms that are classified as lower protists. They may occur as symbionts, parasites, or pathogens of humans and other animals, plants, and other organisms. Most of the mucosal surfaces of humans and animals are heavily colonized by a wide variety of bacteria, which serve a number of useful functions to the host.

Biofilm: A complex network of different bacteria and extracellular matrix materials secreted by the bacteria which become confluent as a film on many mucosal surfaces.

Colonize: As applied to the bacterial flora, a state in which a bacteria resides harmlessly on a host mucosal surface. The residency time may be from 2 days to permanent, but more typically 1 week to 1 month.

Conserved determinant: The portion of a protein which is common amongst many variants of the protein. This is important in viruses because there are often numerous strains of a single virus, each with slightly different variations in the viral proteins. A conserved determinant on a viral protein refers to an epitope which is common in all strains of the virus.

Disease: As applied to a viral infection, this is a state in which a host suffers harmful effects from a viral infection, either immediate (e.g. fever, chills, bodyaches, etc.) or long-term (e.g., chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma from chronic hepatitis virus types B and C infections, and cervical cancer from chronic HPV infection).

Fusion: As used in this document, refers to the act of merging of two membranes such that the contents of the two entities combine into a single unit.

Genetic material: Generally DNA which contains at least one gene and the regulatory elements which affect the expression of that gene.

Host receptor: A molecule on the surface of the host (target) cell to which a virus attaches in order to gain entry into the host cell.

Hosts: The hosts include both animals and humans. The invention is useful for protecting livestock animals including mammals and birds.

Inactivation: The process of rendering an infectious agent no longer capable of infecting a host.

Mucosal surface: The epithelial membranes which line the inner interface of the body with the environment, including the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract.

Receptors: As applied to viral receptors include the native protein and the functional domains that provide the specific binding characteristics that define these proteins as receptors of virus binding.

Selected for its ability to colonize the mucosal layer: As applied to bacteria refers to bacteria which have been chosen by either selective pressure or by deliberate genetic transformation to enhance ability to colonize mucosal surfaces. The ability whether in terms of absolute numbers or in residency time is defined as at least double the wildtype’s ability to colonize.

Selective advantage: Certain features which when conferred upon a bacteria cause the bacteria to be better adapted to survive in a specific environment such that it will have a greater chance than other bacteria in the same environment to survive and flourish in that environment.

Transform: As applied to bacteria, the introduction of foreign genetic material into a bacteria for the purpose of causing said bacteria to express the foreign gene(s).

Viral infection: The introduction of a virus into a host or a host cell. This does not necessarily suggest harmful effects suffered by the host and needs to be distinguished from clinical disease. This is an important concept since ViroShieldâ„¢ represents a way to prevent infection altogether, while standard vaccines do not actually prevent infection but may prevent disease.

Virus: An infectious agent that consists of proteins and genetic material, either DNA or RNA, both of which are arranged in an ordered array and are sometimes surrounded by an envelope. A virus is generally smaller than a bacterium and is an obligate intracellular parasite at the genetic level; it uses the cell machinery to produce viral products specified by the viral nucleic acid. They are classified into 5 classes based on the type of nucleic acid (ssDNA, dsDNA, dsRNA, +strand RNA, -strand RNA), and a sixth class which is capable of reverse-transcribing +RNA into DNA (retroviruses, e.g. HIV).

All publications and patent applications cited in this specification are herein incorporated by reference as if each individual publication or patent application were specifically and individually indicated to be incorporated by reference.

EXAMPLES

The following examples are provided by way of illustration only and not by way of limitation. Those of skill will readily recognize a variety of noncritical parameters which could be changed or modified to yield essentially similar results.

A. The following examples teach the expression of the receptor for HRV, major group, ICAM-1, on the surface of Esherichia coli.

1. Expressing ICAM-1 domain on the surface of E. coli using plasmid pTX101

ICAM-1 domains 1 and 2 (the minimal receptor for HRV, major group) are expressed on the surface of E. coli through the creation of a fusion protein with aa 1-9 of normal surface protein Lpp and aa 46-159 of OmpA using a system described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867. The DNA segment coding for domains 1 and 2 of ICAM-1 will be amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers designed to introduce in-frame EcoRI restriction sites flanking aa 1-168 of ICAM-1.

Plasmid TX101, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,348,867, contains the β-lactamase gene spliced into an EcoRI site, which is removed by EcoRI digestion followed by separation of the linearized plasmid and the β-lactamase gene with agarose electrophoresis. The PCR amplified ICAM-1 gene segment is ligated to the purified plasmid. E. coli strain JM109 is rendered competent by the rubidium chloride method and transformed with the pTX101-ICAM construct using electroporation.

The Lpp-OmpA-ICAM construct is under the control of the strong Ipp promoter, which is inducible by IPTG (isopropyl thiogalactoside). Thus, IPTG stimulation will lead to high-level expression of the fusion protein. Transformed bacteria will be grown at 24° C. as this expression system works best (highest surface expression) at that temperature.

2. Ascertaining surface expression of ICAM-1 and demonstrating HRV binding.

Immunofiuorescence is used to confirm proper ICAM-1 expression on the bacterial surface. Transformed bacteria are applied to a glass slide and fixed with methanol. Slides will be treated with murine mAbs against ICAM-1, washed extensively, then reacted with goat-anti-mouse IgG conjugated with rhodamine.

Fluorescence is observed under a Confocal Fluorescence Imaging System MRC-500 Bio-Rad microscope. To demonstrate HRV binding to the transformed bacteria, slides with fixed bacteria are incubated with HRV, washed extensively, then reacted with murine mAbs against HRV coat protein. After washing, the slides will be treated with goat-anti-mouse IgG conjugated with rhodamine and visualized as described above.

3. Neutralization of HRV infection of HeLa cells by transformed bacteria in in vitro assay.

Early infection of HeLa cells in vitro by HRV will be monitored by detecting HRV mRNA inside infected HeLa cells by Northern blot analysis. A semipermeable membrane with pores of sufficient size to allow passage of HRV but not bacteria or HeLa cells is placed on top of a monolayer of HeLa cells in a tissue culture flask. Transformed or unmodified bacteria are layered onto the semipermeable membrane, then HRV is added on top of the bacteria and allowed to infect the underlying HeLa cells.

After an appropriate amount of time for infection, (2-6 hrs), the bacteria and semipermeable membrane are removed, and the HeLa cells washed extensively. The cells are then lysed, and their total RNA isolated for Northern analysis which is a standard method useful for detecting HRV mRNA which is an indication of infection.

4. Methods of formulating transformed bacteria in an appropriate vehicle (foam, DNAse, etc.) for use in animal and human hosts:

Transformed bacteria are formulated in a number of vehicles for animal application, For use in the nasopharynx, transformed bacteria may be mixed in saline and applied as a nasal spray. The bacteria are added to the saline at concentration of 106 to 108 cells/ml and applied twice daily in a directed spray of 0.1 ml solution/cm2 area of nasal mucosa.

B. The expression of a viral receptor on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii.

The following examples teach the expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of a gram-positive bacteria, since gram-positive bacteria are prominent members of the nasopharyngeal flora. The expression system is based on the one described in patent PCT/US93/02355. The examples provided herein use Streptococcus gordonii, but are readily adaptable to other gram-positive bacteria due to a common motif, LPXTGX, which allows the anchoring of proteins on the surface of essentially all gram-positive bacteria.

1. Expression of ICAM-1 on the surface of Streptococcus gordonii.

S. gordonii, strain GP232 described by Fischetti et al. in WO 93/18163 is used. In this strain, the gene which encodes for the M6 surface protein of S. pyogenes (contains the LPXTGX motif), emm-6.1, and an ermC gene (erythromycin resistance) disrupted by a cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene have been inserted into the chromosome of GP232 downstream of a strong chromosomal promoter. GP232 expresses M6 on its surface, and is susceptible to erythromycin. Integration vector pVMB20 constructed by Fischetti et al. allows for the insertion of heterologous DNA sequences into emm-6.1. pVMB20 contains a functional (undisrupted) ermC gene, and is a 6.3-kb E. coli plasmid which does not replicate in S. gordonii. pVMB20 is digested with KpnI and HindIII to release a 538-bp KpnI/HindIII segment within emm-6.1, but leaving the LPXTGX motif intact. The ICAM-1 gene is PCR amplified using amplification primers specially designed to obtain an in frame
KpnI/HindIII insert containing domains 1 and 2 of ICAM-1. The insert is then ligated into the digested vector.

Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pVMB20:ICAM-1 construct confirms the proper (in frame) insertion. The plasmid will be linearized and used to transform GP232 by standard methods. Homologous recombination between the 5′ end of the emm-6.1 gene and the 3′ end of the ermC gene, present on both the GP232 chromosome and the plasmid, allows for the integration of the ICAM-1 gene and the functional ermC gene into the GP232 chromosome.

Transformants are selected by screening for erythromycin-resistance, in media containing 5 μg/ml erythromycin.

2. Ascertaining surface expression of ICAM-1 and demonstrating HRV binding.

As in example A2, surface expression of ICAM-1 is verified by immunofluorescence using antibodies specific for ICAM-1. HRV binding will also be demonstrated as in example A2.

3. Neutralization of HRV infection of HeLa cells by transformed bacteria in in vitro assay.

Neutralization of HRV infection of HeLa by transformed GP232 will be demonstrated as in example A3.

C. Antibody expression on a E. coli.

The following examples teach the expression of an antibody fragment against a conserved determinant on the HLA DR molecule on the surface of E. coli. Since the HIV envelope is found to contain approximately 375 copies of the HLA DR molecules from its host (Arthur, L. O., et al., Science, 258(5090):1935-8, 1992.) an antibody fragment against a conserved determinant on HLA DR will bind to all isolates of HIV.

A phage display system exists which allows for the rapid selection of antibody fragments against essentially any target (Marks, J. D., et al., J Biol Chem, 267(23):16007-10, 1992.) is utilized to select for an antibody fragment with high affinity against a conserved determinant on HLA DR.

1. Selection for an antibody fragment with high affinity against a conserved determinant on HLA DR.

A phage library consisting of approximately 1014 bacteriophage each displaying a unique antibody fragment (scFv) on its surface is used (E.g., G. Winters, MRC, Cambridge, UK). Phage binding to HLA DR is selected by taking advantage of the fact that activated T cells express HLA DR, while resting T cells do not. All phage that bind activated T cells will be selected, then of this population, phage that bind resting T cells are removed. This process effectively isolates the subpopulation of phage that bind to HLA DR, and a few T cell activation markers. B cells express HLA DR constitutively. Subjecting this subpopulation of phage to B cells allows for selection of anti-HLA DR phage only, because B cells do not express T cell activation markers.

Of the phage that bind HLA DR, the ones that bind to conserved determinants are selected by screening the subpopulation against B cells of a variety of HLA DR specificities, and selecting only the clones that bind to every B cell specificity. If more than one clone is identified, the one with the highest binding affinity is used. Binding affinities in excess of 10-8 to 10-12 are preferred.

2. Method of expressing an antibody fragment against a conserved determinant on HLA DR on surface of E. coli using plasmid pTX101.

The VH and VL domains of the selected scFv are cloned using suitable primers designed to introduce in-frame EcoRI restriction sites at the N-terminus of the VH and the C-terminus of the VL. The PCR amplified gene segment is ligated into the EcoRI site of pTX101. JM109 bacteria are transformed with the plasmid, and surface expression of the fusion protein will be induced with IPTG at 20° C. as described in example 1.

3. Method of ascertaining surface expression of antibody fragment and demonstrating HIV binding.

Immunofluorescence is performed to confirm proper anti-DR scFv expression on the bacterial surface. Transformed bacteria are applied to a glass slide and fixed with methanol. Slides are treated with soluble human HLA DR molecules, washed, murine mAbs against HLA DR, washed, then reacted with goat-anti-mouse IgG conjugated with rhodamine. Fluorescence will be observed under a Confocal Fluorescence Imaging System MRC-500 Bio-Rad microscope. To demonstrate HIV binding to the transformed bacteria, slides with fixed bacteria are incubated with HIV, washed extensively, then reacted with murine mAbs against the HIV coat protein gp120. After washing, the slides are treated with goat-anti-mouse IgG conjugated with rhodamine and visualized as described above.

4. Neutralization of HIV infection of T cells by transformed bacteria in in vitro assay

Early infection of CEM cells (a laboratory T cell line) in vitro by HIV is monitored by detecting reverse transcriptase activity within infected cells. A semipermeable membrane with pores of sufficient size to allow passage of HIV but not bacteria or CEM cells is placed on top of CEM cells in a tissue culture flask. Transformed or unmodified bacteria are layered onto the semipermeable membrane, then infective HIV is added on top of the bacteria and allowed to infect the underlying CEM cells. After an appropriate of time for infection, (i.e. 2-6 hrs), the bacteria and semipermeable membrane are be removed, and the CEM cells washed extensively. These cells are lysed, and their cytosolic contents assayed for reverse transcriptase activity as an indication of early HIV infection.

5. Methods of formulating transforming bacteria in appropriate vehicle (foam, DNAse, etc.) for use in animal or human hosts.

For the GI tract, transformed E. coli bacteria are cultured and added to a mixture of various fatty acids conventionally used for rectal administrations such as: hydrogenated cocoa nut oil, glycerin, hydrogenated palm kernel oil, or other suitable material for rectal administration. The bacteria is added to the excipients at a concentration of 106 to 108 cells per mg of excipient. Each suppository is between 3-8 grams.

Although the foregoing invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration and example for purposes of clarity of understanding, it will be readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art in light of the teachings of this invention that certain changes and modifications may be made thereto without departing from the spirit or scope of the appended claims.

* * * * *
Other References

* Marshall, Science, 269: 1050-1055, 1995
* Int.J.Tiss REACXIII(2) 115-122 (1991), “Lactobacilli in Relation to Human Ecology and Antimicrobial Therapy,” 1991 Bioscience Ediprint, Inc
* Gastroenterology 1992;102:875-878, “Fecal Recovery in Humans of Viable Bifidobacterium sp Ingested in Fermented Milk,” 1992 by the American Gastroenterological Association
* Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:78-80, “Survival bifidobacteria ingested via fermented milk during their passage through the human small intestine: an in vivo study using intestinal perfusion 1-4,” 1992 American Society for Clinical Nutrition
* Human Health: The Contribution of Microorganisms Formulation, Production and Marketing of Probiotic Products, “Commercial Aspects of Formulation, Production and Marketing of Probiotic Products,” Chapter 10, S. Laulan

Inventor

* Lee, Peter Poon-Hang

Application
No. 401070 filed on 03/08/1995

US Classes:
424/93.1, WHOLE LIVE MICRO-ORGANISM, CELL, OR VIRUS CONTAINING424/93.2, Genetically modified micro-organism, cell, or virus (e.g., transformed, fused, hybrid, etc.)424/93.4, Bacteria or actinomycetales424/93.45Lactobacillus or Pediococcus or Leuconostoc

Field of Search
435/173.1, TREATMENT OF MICRO-ORGANISMS OR ENZYMES WITH ELECTRICAL OR WAVE ENERGY (E.G., MAGNETISM, SONIC WAVES, ETC.)435/173.8, Metabolism of micro-organism enhanced (e.g., growth enhancement or increased production of microbial product)435/252.3, Transformants (e.g., recombinant DNA or vector or foreign or exogenous gene containing, fused bacteria, etc.)435/244, Chemical stimulation of growth or activity by addition of chemical compound which is not an essential growth factor; stimulation of growth by removal of a chemical compound435/252.1, Bacteria or actinomycetales; media therefor424/93.1, WHOLE LIVE MICRO-ORGANISM, CELL, OR VIRUS CONTAINING424/93.2, Genetically modified micro-organism, cell, or virus (e.g., transformed, fused, hybrid, etc.)424/93.4, Bacteria or actinomycetales424/93.45Lactobacillus or Pediococcus or Leuconostoc

Examiners
Primary: Ziska, Suzanne E.

Attorney, Agent or Firm

* Townsend and Townsend and Crew LLP

US Patent References
5348867, Expression of proteins on bacterial surface
Issued on: 09/20/1994
Inventor: Georgiou, et al.5531988Bacteria and immunoglobulin-containing composition for human gastrointestinal health
Issued on: 07/02/1996
Inventor: Paul

Foreign Patent References

* WO 93/18161 WO. 09/19/1993

International Class
A01N 063/00

US Patent Application 20060283080 – Method of creating and preserving the identity of non-genetically modified seeds and grains
192.168.1.100

http://www.patentstorm.us/applications/20060283080/fulltext.html

1. A method of ensuring the exclusion of genetically modified material from food products comprising: selecting seeds from certified sources that are known to contain only non-genetically modified and non-genetically-engineered varieties (non-GMO); planting the selected seeds to produce a non-GMO crop; inspecting a grower operation and machinery to verify that the operation is free of contaminates and conforms to processing and cleanliness criteria prior to harvest; harvesting the non-GMO crop; inspecting processing facility to verify that the operation is free of contaminants and conforms to processing and cleanliness criteria prior to processing; tracking containers holding the non-GMO crop each time the crop is moved into and out of a storage container, wherein the tracking includes monitoring the field in which the non-GMO crop was grown, monitoring each of the storage containers used to hold the non-GMO crop, and recording the date of all crop
transfers; and processing the non-GMO crops into a food product, wherein said food product is placed in containers for shipment, wherein the containers possess lot-based tracking information which permits the food product to be tracked back to the field and to containers used to produce or ship the food product; and shipping the food product for use by a food processor.

2. The method of claim 1, further comprising obtaining genetic test results indicative that the crop substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

3. The method of claim 2, further comprising certifying that the crop excludes genetically modified crop material.

4. The method of claim 3, wherein certifying that the crop excludes genetically modified crop material comprises testing for application susceptibility.

5. The method of claim 3, wherein the certifying is sufficient to indicate that the crop contains 0.01% or less genetically modified material.

6. The method of claim 3, wherein the act of certifying comprises making a non-visual verification that the crop substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

7. The method of claim 1, further comprising obtaining genetic test results indicative that the food product substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

8. The method of claim 7, further comprising certifying that the food product substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

9. The method of claim 8, wherein the certifying is sufficient to indicate that the food product contains 0.01% or less genetically modified material.

10. The method of claim 7, wherein the lot-based tracking information comprises a lot identification number established when the crop is harvested.

11. The method of claim 1, wherein the lot-based tracking information comprises a lot identification number established when the crop is harvested.

12. A method of ensuring the exclusion of genetically modified material from food products comprising: planting seeds selected from sources known to contain only non-genetically modified and non-genetically-engineered varieties to produce a non-GMO crop; harvesting the non-GMO crop; and processing the non-GMO crop into shipping containers identified with non-varietal lot-based tracking information.

13. The method of claim 12, further comprising obtaining genetic test results indicative that the crop substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

14. The method of claim 13, further comprising certifying that the processed crop excludes genetically modified crop material.

15. The method of claim 14, wherein the certifying is sufficient to indicate that the processed crop contains 0.01% or less genetically modified material.

16. The method of claim 14, wherein the act of certifying comprises making a non-visual verification that the crop substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

17. The method of claim 12, further comprising obtaining genetic test results indicative that the unprocessed crop substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

18. The method of claim 17, further comprising certifying that the food product substantially excludes genetically modified crop material.

19. The method of claim 17, wherein the non-varietal lot-based tracking information comprises a lot identification number established when the crop is harvested.

20. The method of claim 12, wherein the non-varietal lot-based tracking information comprises a lot identification number established when the crop is harvested.

21. A method of ensuring the exclusion of genetically modified material from food products comprising: obtaining crop products grown under controlled conditions to exclude genetically modified material; tracking the crop products using lot-based tracking information; genetically testing the crop products to determine whether genetically modified material is present; and excluding the crop products if the genetic testing indicates that genetically modified material is present at an excess level.

22. The method of claim 21, further comprising associating information obtained at multiple stages of the development of the crop products with the lot-based tracking information in a single document.

23. The method of claim 21, wherein the genetic testing is variety-independent.
Description

CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
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Genetic Murder Patent

* â–¼ 2009 (1)
o â–¼ May (1)
+ PATENTED to KILL in US PATENT OFFICE!JOHNNY-JAZZhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/12387330764315163256johnbernays@gmail.comtag:blogger.com,1999:blog-8297239187211524975.post-2722315470543342592009-05-21T15:37:00.000Z2009-05-21T15:38:30.745ZViolent Murder Rap Induced

Sunday, February 05, 2006
NIGGER RAP LYRCS AND VIOLENCE

These are MTV sponsored bands. Go to any grocery store and look for
Vibe, Source, XXL or any other hip-hop magazine and you will find
these performers.
Mixed in with the rap lyrics you will find a handful of the racially
motivated crimes committed against White people every day.
So, does racist music cause violence? Keep reading and judge for
yourself.

———–
Kill the white people; we gonna make them hurt; kill the white
people; but buy my record first; ha, ha, ha”;
“Kill d’White People”; –Apache, Apache Ain’t Shit, 1993, Tommy Boy
Music, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Denver, CO- A white female teenager, Brandy DuvaI, is raped,
sodomized, tortured with a broomstick and stabbed 28 times by a gang
of six blacks and Hispanics. Her skull is caved in and corpse dumped
into a ditch. Police confiscate a blood soaked mattress as evidence.
The murder trial started on the same day as the James Byrd trial!

———————————————————————
———–
“Niggas in the church say: kill whitey all night long. . . . the
white man is the devil. . . . the CRIPS and Bloods are soldiers I’m
recruiting with no dispute; drive-by shooting on this white genetic
mutant. . . . let’s go and kill some rednecks. . . . Menace Clan
ain’t afraid. . . . I got the .380; the homies think I’m crazy
because I shot a white baby; I said; I said; I said: kill whitey all
night long. . . . a nigga dumping on your white ass; fuck this rap
shit, nigga, I’m gonna blast. . . . I beat a white boy to the
motherfucking ground”;
“Kill Whitey”; –Menace Clan, Da Hood, 1995, Rap-A-Lot Records, Noo
Trybe Records, subsidiaries of what was called Thorn EMI and now is
called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Devils fear this brand new shit. . . . I bleed them next time I
see them. . . . I prey on these devils. . . . look what it has come
to; who you gonna run to when we get to mobbing. . . . filling his
body up with lead, yah; cracker in my way; slitting, slit his
throat; watch his body shake; watch his body shake; that’s how we do
it in the motherfucking [San Francisco] Bay. . . . Sitting on the
dock of the dirty with my AK”;
“Heat-featuring Jet and Spice1″; –Paris, Unleashed, 1998, Unleashed
Records, Whirling Records.
———————————————————————
———–
Killeen, TX – A white couple, Todd and Stacy Bagley are kidnapped
on the way to church, lit on fire, burned to death and shot in the
head by four blacks.

———————————————————————
———–
“These devils make me sick; I love to fill them full of holes; kill
them all in the daytime, broad motherfucking daylight; 12 o’clock,
grab the Glock; why wait for night”;
“Sweatin Bullets”; –Brand Nubian, Everything Is Everything, 1994,
Elektra Entertainment, Warner Communications, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“A fight, a fight, a nigger and a white, if the nigger don’t win
then we all jump in. . . . smoking all [of] America’s white boys”;
–”A Fight”; Apache, Apache Ain’t Shit, 1993, Tommy Boy Music, Time
Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Flint,Michigan – Three white teenagers, Michael Carter, Dustin
Kaiser and (girl’s name withheld by police) are attacked by six
black youths. Carter is shot and killed. Kaiser is beaten and shot
in the head, but recovers. The girl is forced to perform oral sex on
her black attackers, pistol whipped and shot in the face.

———————————————————————
———–
“I kill a devil right now. . . . I say kill whitey all nightey
long. . . .I stabbed a fucking Jew with a steeple. . . . I would
kill a cracker for nothing, just for the fuck of it. . . . Menace
Clan kill a cracker; jack ‘em even quicker. . . . catch that devil
slipping; blow his fucking brains out”;
“Fuck a Record Deal”; — Menace Clan, Da Hood, 1995, Rap-A-Lot
Records, Noo Trybe Records, subsidiaries of Thorn EMI; called The
EMI Group since 1997, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
South Carolina – A white female, Melissa McLaughlin, is raped,
tortured and skinned alive in a tub of bleach by seven blacks.

———————————————————————
———–
“Now I’m black but black people trip ’cause white people like me;
white people like me I but don’t like them. . . . I don’t hate
whites, I just gotta death wish for motherfuckers that ain’t right”;
–”Race War”; Ice-T, Home Invasion, 1993, Priority Records, Thorn
EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“To all my Universal Soldier’s: stay at attention while I
strategize an invasion; the mission be assassination, snipers
hitting Caucasians with semi-automatic shots heard around the world;
my plot is to control the globe and hold the world hostage. . . .
see, I got a war plan more deadlier than Hitler. . . . lyrical
specialist, underworld terrorist. . . . keep the unity thick like
mud. . . . I pulling out gats , launching deadly attacks”;
–”Blood for Blood”; Killarmy, Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars, 1997,
Wu-Tang Records, Priority Records, The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Jacksonville, FL – A mentally retarded white man, Gregory Griffith,
is beaten and stomped unconscious by blacks and died a few days
later. The blacks admitted to the police beating Griffith
because “he was white”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Lead to the head of you devils”;
“Lick Dem Muthaphuckas-Remix”; –Brand Nubian, Everything Is
Everything, 1994, Elektra Entertainment, Warner Communications, Time
Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“This will all be over in ’99, so, niggas, give devils the crime;
gonna be more devils dying”;
–”No Surrender”; Bone Thugs-N-Harmony, Creepin on ah Come Up, 1994,
Ruthless Records, Epic Records, Sony Music Entertainment, Sony,
Japan.
———————————————————————
———–
Kansas City, MO – A black male shoots two white co-workers, Micheal
Scott and Traci Riehle. Scott is killed and Riehle is critically
injured. Police find a note referring to “blood sucker supreme white
people”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Won’t be satisfied until the devils-I see them all dead. . . . my
brother is sending me more guns from down South. . . . pale
face. . . . it’s all about brothers rising up, wising up, sizing up
our situation. . . . you be fucking with my turf when you be fucking
with my race; now face your maker and take your last breath; the
time is half-past death. . . . it’s the Armageddon. . . . go into
the garage; find that old camouflage. . . . cracker-shooting
nightly”;
–”What the Fuck”; Brand Nubian, Everything Is Everything, 1994,
Elektra Entertainment, Warner Communications, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“.44 ways to get paid. . . . I’m through with talking to these
devils; now I’m ready to blast”;
–”44 Wayz-featuring Mystic”; Paris, Unleashed, 1998, Unleashed
Records, Whirling Records.
———————————————————————
———–
Alexandria, VA – An eight year old white child, Kevin Shiffiet, is
killed when his throat is slit by a black who also stabs his 80 year
old great grandmother and punches her in the chest. Police find a
hand rambling note stating. “Kill them raceess whiate kidd’s
anyway”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Like my niggas from South Central Los Angeles they found that they
couldn’t handle us; Bloods, CRIPS, on the same squad, with the
Essays up, and nigga, it’s time to rob and mob and break the white
man off something lovely”;
–”The Day the Niggaz Took Over”; Dr Dre, The Chronic, 1993,
Interscope Records, under Time Warner in 1993.
———————————————————————
———–
Burlington, NC – A ten year old white child, Tiffany Long, is raped,
sodomized, sexually tortured and murdered by two black males and a
black female. The black female rams a broomstick up her vagina and
rectum. The parents were prohibited from seeing their dead
daughter’s body.

———————————————————————
———–
“Bust a Glock; devils get shot. . . . when God give the word me herd
like the buffalo through the neighborhood; watch me blast. . . . I’m
killing more crackers than Bosnia-Herzegovina, each and
everyday. . . . don’t bust until you see the whites of his eyes, the
whites of his skin. . . . Louis Farrakhan . . . Bloods and CRIPS,
and little old me, and we all getting ready for the enemy”;
– “Enemy”; Ice Cube, Lethal Injection, 1993, Priority Records,
Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Devil, to gangbanging there’s a positive side and the positive
side is this-sooner than later the brothers will come to Islam, and
they will be the soldiers for the war; what war, you ask;
Armageddon; ha, ha, ha, ha, ha”;
“Armageddon”; — RBX, The RBX Files, 1995, Premeditated Records,
Warner Brother Records, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“Subtract the devils that get smoked. . . . we’re people, black
people; steal your mind back, don’t die in their wilderness. . . .
let’s point our heaters the other way”;
–”Dial 7″; Digable Planets, Blowout Comb, 1994, Pendulum Records,
Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Get them devil-made guns and leave them demons bleeding; give them
back whips, and just feed them bullets”;
–”Wicked Ways”; Sunz of Man, One Million Strong: The Album, 1995,
Mergela Records, Solar/Hines Co., Prolific Records.
———————————————————————
———–
Fayetteville, NC – Two white women, Tracy Lambert and Susan Moore,
are carjacked by a group of seven blacks and Hispanics and shot
execution style in the head. This murder was part of a gang
initiation. The bullets found in the victims’ heads were painted
blue, the Crips’ gang color.

———————————————————————
———–
“It’s time to send the devil to the essence. . . this is a must
because there ain’t no reform or trust; you got a Glock and you see
a devil, bust… . they’ll be calling us the trigger men, the nappy-
knotty red-beard devil-assassin; Lord make a law; at midnight I’ll
be bashing. . . . field niggas [are] locked in until 2005″;
–”Field Nigguhz in a Huddle”; Professor Griff, Blood of the
Prophet; 1998, Lethal Records, Mercury Records, PolyGram, Phillips’
Electronics NV, Netherlands. PolyGram merged with Universal Music
Group in 1998, the parent being The Seagram Company of Canada, owned
by Edgar Bronfman.
———————————————————————
———–
Alton, Illinois – A white male, Richard Skelton, is attacked and
stomped to death by a group of 25 blacks while black onlookers
yell, “Kill the cracker”.

———————————————————————
———–
“He preys on old white ladies [who] drive the Mercedes with the
windows cracked. . . . you should’ve heard the bitch
screaming. . . . sticking guns in crackers’ mouths. . . . the cops
can’t stop it. . . . remember 4-29-92, come on; Florence and
Normandy coming to a corner near you, cracker; we’ve been through
your area, mass hysteria; led by your motherfucking Menace Clan”;
–”Mad Nigga”; Menace Clan, Da Hood, 1995, Rap-A-Lot Records, Noo
Trybe Records, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“The black man is god. . . . buy a Tec [and] let loose in the
Vatican. . . I love the black faces; so put your Bible in the attic”;
–”Ain’t No Mystery”; Brand Nubian, In God We Trust, 1992, Elektra
Entertainment, Warner Communications, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Cleveland, OH – A five year old white girl, Devon Duniver, was
stabbed to death by a black teenager who said after the murder, “She
got what she deserved.”

———————————————————————
———–
“Rhymes is rugged like burnt buildings in Harlem; the Ol Dirty
Bastard. . . . I’m also militant. . . . snatching devils up by the
hair, then cut his head off”;
–”Cuttin Headz”; Ol Dirty Bastard, Return of the 36 Chambers: the
Dirty Version; 1995, Elektra Entertainment, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Kansas City, MO – A six year old white child, Jake Robel, is dragged
to death by a black carjacker who drove away even as the boy being
dragged screamed outside of the car door while still partially
attached to the seat belt.

———————————————————————
———–
“Listen to this black visionary, bringing war like a
revolutionary. . . . go on a killing spree, putting devils out their
misery; hearing screams, sounds of agony; my hostility takes over
me. . . . camouflaged ninjas avenging”;
–”Under Seige”; Killarmy, Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars, 1997, Wu-
Tang Records, Priority Records, The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Swing by on the pale guy. . . . break him in the neck. . . . the
guerrilla with the poison tip. . . . shaking pinky up on a dull-ass
ice-pick . . . this is Lench Mob. . . . devil, what you want to do;
when you see the boot, knew your head is hoohoo “;
–”King of the Jungle”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994,
Priority Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United
Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Buffalo, NY – A white man, Gary Traska, is stomped to death by three
blacks. Many of his organs were actually split apart from the savage
beating.

———————————————————————
———–
“Dropping verses, casting curses, throwing these hexes on the
devils. . . . respect to Farrakhan, but I’m the jungle-don, the new
guerrilla, top-ranked honky killer. . . . what do blacks do; they
just keep on blowing devils away. . . . evil fucking cracker. . . .
I’m tightening up the laces to my steel-toed boots, so I can walk,
stomp; we stomp this devil down in the park”;
–”Planet of da Apes”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994,
Priority Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United
Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Fayetteville, NC – A white male, Donald Lange, is stomped by ten
black males. Lange is now brain dead and a complete vegetable.

———————————————————————
———–
“We’re having thoughts of overthrowing the government. . . . the
brothers and sisters threw their fists in the air. . . . it’s open
season on crackers, you know; the morgue will be full of Caucasian
John Doe’s. . . . I make the Riot shit look like a fairy tale. . . .
oh my god, Allah, have mercy; I’m killing them devils because
they’re not worthy to walk the earth with the original black man;
they must be forgetting; it’s time for Armageddon, and I won’t rest
until they’re all dead”;
–”Goin Bananas”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994, Priority
Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Salt Lake City, UT – A black man breaks into the house of two white
women, Amy Clinton and Aaron Warren. The black man stabs both women,
killing Amy Clinton and seriously injuring Aaron Warren.

———————————————————————
———–
“The crackers ain’t shit; chase them out of the jungle; now raise up
off the planet. . . . we get the 12 gauge; shot to the chest. . . .
we hitting devils up. . . . Da Lench Mob, environmental
terrorist. . . . I gripped the Glock and had to knock his head from
his shoulders. . . . I got the .30[6] on the rooftop; pop; pop; so
many devils die. . . . make sure I kill them. . . lynch a thousand a
week if it’s necessary”;
–”Environmental Terrorist”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994,
Priority Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United
Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Bloomington, IL – A white female, Patricia Stansfield is dragged two
miles to her death during a carjacking by a black male.

———————————————————————
———–
“Like an armed struggle. . . . I come with the New Wu Order. . . .
waging war on the devils’ community. . . . whipped cardinals and one
Pope”;
–”Universal Soldiers”; Killarmy, Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars,
1997, Wu-Tang Records, Priority Records, The EMI Group, United
Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Swinging out of the trees, is the blood-spilling, devil-killing,
nappy-headed g.’s. . . . blacks and Mexicans must take a
stand. . . . I’m down with Chico, and not with the man”;
–”Set the Shit Straight”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994,
Priority Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United
Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Reno, NV – A Polynesian immigrant kills a white police officer,
George Sullivan, with a hatchet Sullivan is struck 20 times. The
immigrant admits to killing Sullivan because “he was a white police
officer”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Fuck them laws, because the Mob is coming raw; nigga, is you down
because it’s the Final Call. . . . grab your gat; know the three
will start busting; I’m trying to take them down. . . . the war of
wars with no fucking scores. . . . April 29 was a chance to
realize . . . the g.’s are out to kill. . . . we got crackers to
kill; sending them back in on a ship to Europe. . . . they deserve
it. . . . a nation-wide riot across America. . . . this is the Final
Call on black man and black woman, rich and poor; rise up”;
–”Final Call”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994, Priority
Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“I come with the wicked style. . . . I got everybody jumping to the
voodoo. . . . I got a gat and I’m looking out the window like
Malcolm. . . . April 29 was power to the people, and we just might
see a sequel”;
–”Wicked”; Ice Cube, The Predator, 1992, Priority Records, Thorn
EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
Boulder, CO – A white college student, “Jane Doe”, is gang-raped at
gun-point by six Asians. Because of court proceedings and fear of
retaliation by the “Asian Crips”, she is referred to as “Jane Doe”.
The Asians admit to raping the girl “because she was blonde and
white”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Deal with the devil with my motherfucking steel. . . . white man is
something I tried to study, but I got my hands bloody, yeah. . . . I
met Farrakhan and had dinner”;
–”When Will They Shoot”; Ice Cube, The Predator, 1992, Priority
Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“Actual fact you need to be black. . . . everyday I fight a
devil. . . . I grab a shovel to bury a devil. . . . the battle with
the beast, Mr. 666. . . . my mind rolled to a 7th level; grab my
bazooka and nuke a devil. . . . with black, I build; for black, I
kill”;
–”Fightin the Devil”; RBX, The RBX Files, 1995, Premeditated
Records, Warner Brother Records, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Racine, WI- A black gang member, Nazeer Ghani, fires into a crowd of
white concert-goers while shouting racial epithets, killing father
of two Joe Rowan. Although identified by 30 witnesses, police
release the killer for “lack of evidence.”

———————————————————————
———–
“I pledge allegiance to only the black. . . . black, you had best
prepare for the coming of war. . . . look at you devil; now you’re
sweating; I’m telling you: you can’t run from the hand of
Armageddon. . . . he eats his pig-steak rare so he can taste the
blood”;
–”No Time”; RBX, The RBX Files, 1995, Premeditated Records, Warner
Brother Records, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“Killing devils [and] scatter they ashes over the sea of
Mediterranean . . . . open your eyes to the revolution. . . . unite
with the black coalition”;
–”Wake Up”; Killarmy, Silent Weapons for Quiet Wars, 1997, Wu-Tang
Records, Priority Records, The EMI Group, United Kingdom.
———————————————————————
———–
“My own kind blind, brain-trained on the devil-level. . . . chasing
down loot, Dole or Newt, who do you shoot. . . . rough stuff to the
babies, spread like rabies”;
–”Niggativity . . . Do I Dare Disturb the Universe”; Chuck D,
Autobiography of MistaChuck, 1996, Mercury Records, PolyGram,
Phillips’ Electronics NV, Netherlands. PolyGram merged within
Universal Music Group in 1998, the parent being The Seagram Company,
Canada.
———————————————————————
———–
“Buck the devil; boom. . . . shoot you with my .22; I got plenty of
crew; I take out white boys. . . . we got big toys with the one-mile
scope, taking whitey’s throat”;
–”Buck tha Devil”; Da Lench Mob, Guerrillas in tha Mist, 1992,
Eastwest Records America, Elektra, Atlantic, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, SD- A white man is dragged to his
death by Indians. Federal officials hesitate to call it a “hate
crime”.

———————————————————————
———–
“Little devils don’t go to heaven. . . . the AK forty . . . hold a
fifty clip, and I’ll shoot until it’s empty. . . . I’m killing only
seven million civilians. . . . one dead devil”;
“Freedom Got an AK”; Da Lench Mob, Guerrillas in tha Mist, 1992,
Eastwest Records America, Elektra, Atlantic, Time Warner, USA.
———————————————————————
———–
“Grab your deep-ass crews. . . . we gotta make them ends, even if
it means Jack and friends. . . . now you’re doomed, hollow-points to
the dome; once again it’s on. . . . out comes my .22. . . . I’m the
cut-throat; now I got to cut you . . . ’94 is the season for
lynching; from out of the dark is the South Central g., ready-hand
steady on a bloody machete. . . . a devil is on my shoulder; should
I kill it; hell yah. . . . I slice Jack. . . . took an axe, and gave
that bitch, Jill, forty wacks. . . . with my hip hop . . . it don’t
stop, until heads roll off the cutting block”;
–”Cut Throats”; Da Lench Mob, Planet of da Apes, 1994, Priority
Records, Thorn EMI; now called The EMI
———————————————————————
———–
Miami, FL – Seven whites are murdered by the Yahweh Cult whose
leader orders the members to cut off and return the ears of the
victims as proof of the murders. The trial was conducted at the same
time as the Rodney King trial!

The Greek philosopher Plato in his book The Republic, written about
380 B.C, first advanced eugenics. But even before Plato’s proposal
the breeding of crops and animals had been known and practiced for
more than ten thousand years. And in almost every culture or
civilization, there were concerns for the genetic quality of the
people, though they did not understand the underlying mechanism. They
could however readily see the results, and did so in breeding all
sorts, including human breeding.

During the turn of the last century, socialists, nativists,
conservatives and policy advocates of all types understood this: the
underclass was there because of poor racial hygiene or bad breeding.
Even the Jewish religion fully understood the consequences of good
breeding and racialism. The following excerpts are from “Jewish
Eugenics and Other Essays”, Three Papers Read Before the New York
Board of Jewish Ministers, 1915, Bloch Publishing Company, New York,
1916. “Jewish Eugenics” By Rabbi Max Reichler:

“Who knows the cause of Israel’s survival? Why did the Jew survive
the onslaughts of Time, when others, numerically and politically
stronger, succumbed? Obedience to the Law of Life, declares the
modern student of eugenics, was the saving quality which rendered the
Jewish race immune from disease and destruction. ‘The Jews, ancient
and modern,’ says Dr. Stanton Coit, ‘have always understood the
science of eugenics, and have governed themselves in accordance with
it; hence the preservation of the Jewish race.’”

“To be sure eugenics as a science could hardly have existed among the
ancient Jews; but many eugenic rules were certainly incorporated in
the large collection of Biblical and Rabbinical laws. Indeed there
are clear indications of a conscious effort to utilize all influences
that might improve the inborn qualities of the Jewish race, and to
guard against any practice that might vitiate the purity of the race,
or ‘impair the racial qualities of future generations’ either
physically, mentally, or morally….

“The very founder of the Jewish race, the patriarch Abraham,
recognized the importance of certain inherited qualities, and
insisted that the wife of his ‘only beloved son’ should not come
from ‘the daughters of the Canaanites,’ but from the seed of a
superior stock.

“In justifying this seemingly narrow view of our patriarch, one of
the Rabbis significantly suggests: ‘Even if the wheat of your own
clime does not appear to be of the best, its seeds will prove more
productive than others not suitable to that particular soil.’

“This contention is eugenically correct. Davenport tells of a
settlement worker of this city who made special inquiry concerning a
certain unruly and criminally inclined section of his territory, and
found that the offenders came from one village in Calabria, known
as ‘the home of the brigands.’ Just as there is a home of the
brigands, so there may be ‘a home of the pure bloods.’

“Eugenicists also claim that though consanguineous marriages are in
most cases injurious to the progeny, yet where relatives
possess ‘valuable characters, whether apparent or not, marriages
between them might be encouraged, as a means of rendering permanent a
rare and valuable family trait, which might otherwise be much less
likely to become an established characteristic.’ Abraham’s servant,
Eliezer, so the Midrash states, desired to offer his own daughter to
Isaac, but his master sternly rebuked him, saying: ‘Thou art cursed,
and my son is blessed, and it does not behoove the cursed to mate
with the blessed, and thus deteriorate the quality of the race.’

“The aim of eugenics is to encourage the reproduction of the good
and ‘blessed’ human protoplasm and the elimination of the impure
and ‘cursed’ human protoplasm. According to Francis Galton, it is ‘to
check the birthrate of the unfit, and to further the productivity of
the fit by early marriages and the rearing of healthful children….’

“Great, in the eyes of the Rabbis, was the offense of him who married
a woman from an element classed among the unfit. His act was as
reprehensible as if he had dug up every fertile field in existence
and sown it with salt. A quintuple transgression was his, for which
he will be bound hand and foot by Elijah, the great purifier, and
flogged by God himself. ‘Woe unto him who deteriorates the quality of
his children and defiles the purity of his family,’ is the verdict of
Elijah endorsed by God. On the other hand, the mating of two persons
possessing unique and noble traits cannot but result in the
establishment of superior and influential families. When God will
cause his Shechinah to dwell in Israel, only such which scrupulously
preserved the purity of their families, will be privileged to witness
the manifestation of the Holy Spirit….

“The marriage between the offspring of inferior stock and that of
superior stock, such as the marriage between a scholar and the
daughter of an am-haarez, or between an am-haarez and the daughter of
a scholar, was considered extremely undesirable, and was condemned
very strongly. Moreover, no Rabbi or Talmid Chacham was allowed to
take part in the celebration of such a non-eugenic union….

“A parallel to the ‘rough eugenic ideal’ of marrying ‘health, wealth
and wisdom’ is found in the words of Rabbi Akiba, who claims that ‘a
father bequeaths to his child beauty, health, wealth, wisdom and
longevity.’ Similarly, ugliness, sickness, poverty, stupidity and the
tendency to premature death, are transmitted from father to
offspring. Hence we are told that when Moses desired to know why some
of the righteous suffer in health and material prosperity, while
others prosper and reap success; and again, why some of the wicked
suffer, while others enjoy success and material well-being; God
explained that the righteous and wicked who thrive and flourish, are
usually the descendants of righteous parents, while those who suffer
and fail materially are the descendants of wicked parents.

“Thus the Rabbis recognized the fact that both physical and psychical
qualities were inherited, and endeavored by direct precept and law,
as well as by indirect advice and admonition, to preserve and improve
the inborn, wholesome qualities of the Jewish race. It is true that
they were willing to concede that ‘a pure-bred individual may be
produced by a hybrid mated with a pure bred,’ for they found examples
of that nature in Ruth the Moabitess, Naamah the Ammonitess, Hezekiah
and Mordecai. As a general eugenic rule, however, they maintained
that one cannot produce ‘a clean thing out of an unclean,’ and
discouraged any kind of intermarriage even with proselytes [converts
to Judaism]. Their ideal was a race healthy in body and in spirit,
pure and undefiled, devoid of any admixture of inferior human
protoplasm.

“Such an ideal, though apparently narrow and chauvinistic, has its
eugenic value, as the following suggestive quotation from a well-
known eugenist clearly indicates. ‘Families in which good and noble
qualities of mind and body have become hereditary, form a natural
aristocracy; and if such families take pride in recording their
pedigrees, marry among themselves, and establish a predominant
fertility, they can assure success and position to the majority of
their descendants in any political future. They can become the
guardians and trustees of a sound inborn heritage, which,
incorruptible and undefiled, they can preserve in purity and vigor
throughout whatever period of ignorance and decay may be in store for
the nation at large. Neglect to hand on undimmed the priceless
germinal qualities which such families possess, can be regarded only
as betrayal of a sacred trust.’”

It is obvious from this scholarly work that eugenics was a part of
Judaism’s religious writings and practices since the very beginning
and that to a large extent Judaism was and is a eugenic religion
(MacDonald 1994). And it was a simple formula. Those males, who were
intelligent, especially in scholarly readings and debating the
scriptures, were married to the daughters of the wealthy Jews, who no
doubt were above average in intelligence as were their offspring.
Jews who were not successful or who were not scholarly tended to
defect, under almost constant persecutions, to a safer haven among
the Christians.

Over the last few decades for the first time in history, the charge
of racism has been used to attack eugenics. If you are a eugenicist
then you are a racist (I have reviewed nine books on eugenics and
genetic engineering, published in The Mankind Quarterly, Spring 2001,
pages 315-50. My original article submitted to Mankind Quarterly is
available at http:// home.att.net/~dysgenics/gen.htm).

The latest and in my opinion the best book on eugenics is Eugenics: A
Reassessment by Richard Lynn, 2001, published by Praeger Press as
part of the “Human Evolution, Behavior, and Intelligence” series
edited by Seymour W. Itzkoff. This book is a remarkable compilation
of the current issue of eugenics and how it has returned and what we
can expect in the coming battle where everything labeled eugenic will
be attacked as racist. I will use it as my primary source for showing
why the charge of racism is used to try and deter the eugenicists’
exponential growth in human genetic engineering and why they abhor
it.

The Left, led by Marxists like Montagu, Boaz, Gould, Lewontin, Rose,
Kamin et al., captured the reins of ideological propaganda and
convinced the West that “race” did not exist and that eugenics was
pseudoscience. They managed to do this through sheer force of
character and the willing passiveness of the public to believe what
they were told – repetition and almost total control of the media by
the Left made the indoctrination rather easy. Deception along with
moral duplicity allowed these intellectual terrorists to neuter
Western society into believing in equalitarianism – or a false belief
that under the skin all humans were absolutely equal in every way. We
are just now freeing ourselves from those shackles that were placed
upon us to keep us from challenging the very concept of racial
differences and group evolutionary strategies.

The book covers eugenics from top to bottom so I will discuss just
some of the most interesting or informative aspects of the book as it
relates to eugenics. First, Lynn finally puts to rest the notion that
equates Nazism/racism with eugenics and eugenics with the Holocaust.
Galton argued in 1869 that immigration of Russian and Polish Jews
into England was eugenic for the overall improvement of the genetic
capital of England: they were welcomed because of their genetic
quality. And Hitler never argued that the Jews were inferior but
quite the contrary. He argued they were of such superior stock
genetically that they were a threat to the Aryan race. Many scholars
have corrected this misinformation, and Lynn summarizes it elegantly.
In addition, Nazi Germany did not have a sterilization program for
the mentally retarded or insane that was any broader in scope than
other countries at the time. Per capita, Sweden had sterilized far
more people, as did many most Western countries. When it came to
euthanasia, there was basically one purpose for its implementation
when beginning in 1939 the Nazis needed to free up resources and make
room in the hospitals for the war effort. Euthanasia had nothing to
do with eugenics.

But ethnocentrism was in play in Germany because it was held that the
Jews had “evolved genetic qualities that made them good as middlemen
in such occupations as money lenders and traders but that they were
not good at production. They viewed the Jewish qualities
as ‘specialized for a parasitic existence.’ The idea that money
lenders and middlemen are parasitical and do not make a positive
contribution to a nation’s economy is, of course, economically
illiterate, but it was nevertheless held by a certain number of
German biologists and geneticists in the 1930s.” But others
parasitize ethnic groups when the opportunity avails itself, as
explained by Dawkins (1982) (see http://
home.att.net/~eugenics/host.htm for a discussion of ethnic parasitic
behaviors).

So as it turns out, Germany’s eugenics’ program was never very
developed or aggressive: they had war on their minds. Other countries
were much more assertive – eugenics was supported by socialists as
well as the general public. But to make a case for Marxism in the
last few decades, it was very beneficial to link the defeated and
hated Nazis with eugenics/racism. When this stuck in the public’s
mind, radical environmentalism was on its way to being largely
unchallenged. And as part of this propaganda “Kamin (1974), Kevles
(1985), and Gould (1981) maintain[ed] that eugenic considerations
played a major part in the quota restrictions imposed by the act, but
Herrnstein and Murray (1994) doubt this, pointing out that no
reference to the intelligence of immigrants appears in the
Congressional records of the time. However, politicians do not always
like to put on paper their motives for passing legislation; and after
the elapse of three quarters of a century, it is impossible to assess
precisely the degree to which eugenic arguments contributed to the
national quota restrictions imposed by the 1924 Immigration Act.” So
there has been a continuous and relentless distortion of history by
these perennial Marxists and for decades they did indoctrinate the
West into believing that racism/eugenicism were evils perpetrated by
the devious Anglo mind.

Today, this mindset is still in place. In numerous articles and
surveys, different racial groups are compared and typically the
status of Blacks is compared to that of Whites, and the disparity is
blamed always on racism or the government’s failure to act strongly
enough to make everyone equal. Never is the point made that different
racial groups have incomes equivalent to their average IQs, with
Blacks on the bottom and Jews and East Asians at the top. It is
always taken for granted that different racial groups are on average
equally intelligent, and yet only sociologists and cultural
anthropologists still embrace this myth and perpetuate it through the
media by routinely issuing new studies and surveys that ignore
genetic differences. Lynn shatters the racial equality myth
summarizing succinctly what is known today. He even includes a
formula for estimating the expected intelligence of your children
based on the parents IQ and the average IQ of the general population
that the parents belong to.

And levels of average intelligence also have a strong impact on the
productivity of nations. Lynn and Vanhanen (See The Mankind
Quarterly, Summer 2001 and the forthcoming book IQ and the Wealth of
Nations in 2002) have studied 81 nations showing how the average
intelligence correlates with the Gross Domestic Product: [table
omitted, but can be found at http://home.att.net/%
7Eeugenics/lynn.htm]

He also tackles the “if everyone is intelligent, who will mow my
lawn?” argument. With numerous examples, explanations, and hypotheses
about a future world of geniuses, he puts this conundrum to rest. In
short, even geniuses are capable of doing the dishes and mowing the
lawn. If highly intelligent Jews can share the manual workload on an
Israeli Kibbutzim, then a eugenic state of geniuses can also. I would
also venture a guess from the evidence that the only intelligent
people who would resist doing their share of the more tedious tasks
would be those with the behavioral trait of low conscientiousness.
And as I will discuss later, this is the only behavioral trait that
probably has no benefit to society and should be bred out of the
general population anyway.

Which brings us to psychopathy, conscientiousness and agreeableness.
Once we all agree that a eugenics’ program should reduce genetic
disease and raise general intelligence, the only non-trivial question
left is should we tamper with human behavioral traits?
Psychometricians, astonishingly, have settled on the use of the Big-
Five behavioral factors: conscientiousness, agreeableness,
introversion-extroversion, open-mindedness, and neuroticism. Lynn
puts to rest, as do many other psychometricians, any notion that the
last three have any consequences in the workplace in general. That
is, many different combinations of these three factors can be of
benefit or a hindrance depending on the task. So Lynn concentrates on
the first two that in combination results in a psychopathic
personality.

He demonstrates convincingly that from all the available research,
psychopaths with low intelligence are responsible for society’s
problems such as crime, drug addiction, unwed mothers, drug abuse,
rape, child abuse, unemployment, etc. These people are the
underclass. And they result from the combination of two behavioral
traits. They almost universally have low conscientiousness and low
agreeableness or altruism. (Lynn explains that altruism would be a
better term than agreeableness but that term has now “stuck” as the
common descriptor for this behavioral trait). That is, people who are
both highly unconscientious and disagreeable are pathological, and
both of these traits are highly heritable.

From this observation, Lynn softly recommends that a eugenics’
program should include a reduction of both unconscientiousness and
disagreeableness. But I have to take issue with this recommendation.
My interpretation is that only conscientiousness has no value in
modern society, and that its elimination will eliminate the
psychopaths, especially in a nation-state with an extremely high
average intelligence. Such a society should be able to deal with the
occasionally exceptionally disagreeable person. There is no need to
get rid of disagreeableness because a highly altruistic state may be
extremely vulnerable to indoctrination and subjugation. This seems to
be why the West is now in a dysgenic spiral downward, the more
Scandinavian races have a maladaptive level of altruism
(agreeableness) that allows others to become parasitical towards
them. This is a dangerous combination and though the society may
benefit internally from altruism it can also be overtaken by other
racial groups who are far less altruistic and benevolent.

Agreeableness or altruism is interesting then not only because of the
impact this trait has on a population group or race, but also between
races. First, there does not seem to be any correlation between work
productivity and agreeableness. So in a homogeneous society it seems
that it would add little to the economy to eliminate it. But being
disagreeable does have an impact on aggressive psychopaths, or those
who are violent rather than just dysfunctional. And violence is
always a concern in a society. And we also know that Blacks are about
ten times more violent or involved in criminal activity than Whites,
so what does that tell us about Blacks, crime and behavioral types.
Lynn states that:

“The amoral, antisocial, and aggressive nature of the psychopathic
personality has been elaborated by the APA in its 1994 edition of
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). It lists
eleven features of the condition, now renamed antisocial personality
disorder. These are: (1) inability to sustain consistent work
behavior; (2) failure to conform to social norms with respect to
lawful behavior; (3) irritability and aggressivity, as indicated by
repeated physical fights or assaults; (4) repeated failure to honor
financial obligations; (5) failure to plan ahead, or impulsivity; (6)
no regard for truth, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases,
or “conning” others; (7) recklessness regarding one’s own or others’
personal safety, as indicated by driving while intoxicated or
recurrent speeding; (8) inability to function as a responsible
parent; (9) failure to sustain a monogamous relationship for more
than one year; (10) lacking remorse; (11) the presence of conduct
disorder in childhood. It may be useful to note that among these
characteristics, numbers 3, 8, 9, and 11 are moral failures in regard
to social relationships, whereas the remainder are moral failures in
regard to the self and to self-discipline.”

The above list looks an awful lot like a description of the people
who live in Black ghettos and lends me to conclude from what we know
about intelligence that Blacks may very well have, in addition to an
average low intelligence, an inordinately high average of
disagreeableness or lack of altruism. Rushton (1995) has looked at
the differences in behavioral traits between Blacks, Whites and East
Asians and there seems to be real differences between the three
groups. So let’s look at some of this data. For example, it is often
stated that we need to have Mexican immigrants to perform jobs that
other Americans will not do. So how is that possible? Why will
Mexicans work hard for low wages but not Blacks? I must assume that
is has a lot to do with the innate pathology of Blacks – primarily,
low conscientiousness.

Lynn also notes that high self-esteem is also a characteristic of
psychopaths, and we also know from behavioral studies that low
intelligence Blacks have unusually high self-esteem. Since they
should be able to infer their relationship with regards to
intelligence in comparison to others, I have to assume that this self-
esteem is genetic rather than cultural. Which brings us to crime. Are
blacks more criminal because of their low intelligence, their innate
psychopathic personalities, or is it due to them being told by the
Left that they are being discriminated against?

If I as an Islamic imam preached hatred towards the West, and
encouraged a jihad to make things right, would I not be complicit in
exciting others to commit terrorist acts? Well, that is what the Left
has done with regards to Blacks. They have been telling Blacks to
hate Whites because we have oppressed them, rather than telling them
the truth: races differ in innate intelligence on average. It is not
oppression but fair play that makes some groups do better than
others. So if Blacks have been angered to commit even more crime than
they normally would have because they have been promised benefits and
rewards that they do not deserve, then the Left should be held
accountable for inciting Blacks towards violence. Just as the West
should not be held responsible for all the problems in the Islamic
world, Whites should not be held responsible for all the problems
among Blacks around the world. Rushton (1995) clearly shows that
Blacks everywhere are more prone to crime than Whites or East Asians.
But the increase in Black crime from animosity incited by the Left is
clearly an act of aggression and should not be tolerated. Telling
Blacks they could be as well off as Whites or telling Whites they
could be as well of as Jews if only there was no discrimination is
clearly wrong and hateful in either case. Races rise to their own
innate capabilities in free market economies.

But of course the “right-to-lifers” are just as culpable for
increased crime as is the Left. Before about 1930 people generally
accepted that crime ran in families, and that the only remedy was to
reduce the number of offspring born to the underclass before they
overran society. Eugenics was on the verge of overcoming the crime
wave from the underclass. But then abortion became legal and has
vindicated what the early eugenicists were trying to accomplish:

“The eugenic impact of abortion in the United States has been
demonstrated by Steven Levitt, an economist at the University of
Chicago, and John Donohue, a lawyer at Stanford University (Levitt &
Donohue, 1999). They noted that following the Supreme Court decision
in 1973 effectively legalizing abortion throughout the United States,
the annual numbers of abortions increased from approximately 750,000
in 1972 to approximately 1.6 million in 1980. They also noted that
most of this large increase in the numbers of abortions occurred
among the poor, blacks, and the underclass, who produce the greatest
numbers of criminals. Hence, they conclude that approximately 1
million potential criminals who would previously have been born were
aborted. They estimate that this explains about half of the reduction
in crime that occurred between 1991 and 1997. In further support of
this thesis, they found that states with the highest abortion rates
after 1973 experienced the greatest reduction in crime some 20 years
later. Furthermore, five states that allowed abortions before the
1973 Supreme Court ruling permitting abortion experienced an earlier
reduction in crime. This study demonstrates the considerable eugenic
benefits accruing from the legalization of abortion. (Lynn 2000)

Lynn then deals with the mechanisms for reducing genetic disease and
increasing intelligence. First, he points out that detractors of
eugenics are correct in their pessimism of completely eliminating
recessive genetic diseases because as they are reduced they become
ever more difficult to select against. But he notes that in ten
generations, half of all recessive genetic disease alleles could be
eliminated. This in combination with genetic testing of the fetus
could make the complete elimination of the alleles unnecessary. The
genetic disease itself would seldom be expressed in a child.

With regards to increasing intelligence eugenically, he makes a good
case for how relatively easy it is. Since the heritability of
intelligence is so high at around 80% compared to say behavioral
factors around 50% or a little less, intelligence is a no-brainer for
eugenics. And with new technologies, remarkable jumps can be made in
just one generation. He shows how if a normal couple would just
genetically select the potentially most intelligent embryos for
implantation, the intelligence of the children selected would
increase by 15 IQ points. Yes – 15 IQ points in every generation up
to the theoretical maximum of about 200 without any new mutations.
All we need to do is identify the intelligence genes, and this should
be possible in just a few shorts years (Plomin’s prediction – not
Lynn’s). Eugenic selection for intelligence via genetic testing of
embryos followed by in vitro fertilization (IVF) is just a few years
away. And the advantages would be passed on to every generation that
follows! Now that is one hell of a rate of return on your money.
Spend it up front before the child is even born, and the returns are
forever.

Up until the last two chapters of the book, Lynn just provides us
with what eugenics can do, the mechanics, and ethical foundations for
its use. In these final chapters however he states what I also think
is the obvious, but he is much more sanguine about the outcome. Let
me try to summarize his perspective and then I will embellish it.
Basically the West is too altruistic or genetically high in
agreeableness (I can’t think of any better term) to institute an
effective eugenics’ program. But the East is capable of making these
tough-minded decisions, and especially China. They have already fully
embraced a eugenics’ policy and as the ruling totalitarian oligarchs
shift from communism to nationalism, this lone nation with over a
billion people will arise as the world power. They will use a
combination of eugenics with a population that is already second to
none in intelligence (aside from the Ashkenazi Jews) and along with
their size will grow in power and technology. But here is where Lynn
and I differ. He thinks that once China has dominated the world, we
will enter a period of peace even if it is without democracy.

I see a different outcome, based on human nature. There is no point
having power unless one can use it to dominate others. As the Chinese
eugenic nation-state expands, they will not make peace with other
races but they will instead subjugate others, as ethnocentrism has
shown us all racial groups will try to do to others. In addition,
they will use the females of other subjugated races to raise their
children. That is, human slaves will be used as surrogate mothers.
This new elite race of East Asians will not tolerate their own women
having to suffer the pains of bearing children when there is a
plentiful supply of foreign breeders available. These slave breeders
will be kept in perfectly controlled environments for this breeding
purpose, to assure that the elite women do not have to suffer any
inconveniences. And after birth, East Asian professional caretakers
will raise the children so that again, the elite will not have to be
bothered by the inconvenience of annoying children. Sound impossible?
Read Lynn’s book and see which scenario seems more plausible.

But of course, the above plausibility is not really even relevant.
What is important is that once eugenics becomes commonplace, and it
is recognized that the most intelligent races will dominate the
world, then the arms race in eugenics will commence. It may happen
within one nation-state, it may happen by way of collective cults, it
may happen by the wealthiest using the technology aggressively. But
it will happen and it will not happen equally to all races or
peoples. And this is what an evolutionary arms race is all about. The
next 100 years will see a new human species arise – or the
destruction of all humans. But one thing is sure; it will not be
peaceably negotiated away. Eugenics is happening now! And it will be
accelerating at an exponential rate over the next few decades.

The charges of scientific racism then will be used to try and stop
this very natural progression of humans wanting to achieve higher
levels of perfection for their offspring through directed evolution.
But as was stated in Chapter Four, humans are concerned first with
egotism, then nepotism, followed by altruism. All humans are going to
want the best for their children before yielding to their altruistic
sense of raising everyone up equally, especially those outside of
their own group – the troublesome and dangerous other. Ethnocentrism
will make this battle very salient as racial groups compete or try to
prevent other racial groups from advancing. And unlike economic
competition, the acquisition of genetic perfection is forever to be
transferred onto the future generations. The implications for this
genetic arms race is really staggering in scope. It will surely
result in a zero sum game or winner-takes-all. Once any one racial
group gets very far ahead, and maintains their cohesiveness, it will
be very difficult for any other groups to overtake the leader aside
from warfare, terror or government sponsored genocide.

So eugenics can improve the genetic capital of parent’s children, a
race of people, a nation-state, or even a cult or religion similar to
Judaism’s eugenics. How racism will be linked with eugenics then will
determine what group is winning and which group is losing. Whether
eugenics is individual, national, universalist, or global doesn’t
matter because it is already well on its way. (For an outline of a
modern reformulation of a eugenic religion, one that can prosper in a
globalist world, see http:// prometheism.net.)

Charges of racism are conveniently inserted into arguments for
individual freedom over the rights of society even as individual
rights versus societies rights changes rather quickly. Again, with
the bombing of the World Trade Center, we see citizens willing to
give up individual rights under the perceived threat of harm – no
matter how distant or real it really is. It seems that the whole set
of arguments for individual rights over societal rights is more an
issue by issue means of social manipulation. But the fact is they are
linked and one cannot be pursued without the other. As Lynn points
out:

“Yet in the late twentieth century, people with HIV and AIDS were
allowed complete liberty in the Western democracies, including the
liberty of infecting others, and were allowed to travel freely and to
enter the countries without any checks on whether they had HIV or
AIDS. Some of those with these conditions have inflicted high social
and individual costs in spreading the infection. They have been
allowed to do so because of the priority accorded to individual
rights over social rights.

“In the second half of the twentieth century, a component of this
general trend was an increasing acceptance of the right of those with
genetic diseases and disorders, those with mental retardation, and
criminals to have children, despite the social costs imposed by the
genetic transmission of these pathologies; and this right came to be
regarded as more legitimate than the social right of society to
curtail the reproductive liberties of these groups. The fact that
social rights ultimately involve the welfare of actual human beings
was overlooked. Eugenics is premised on the assertion of social
rights and in particular the right of the state to curtail
reproductive liberties in the interests of preserving and promoting
the genetic quality of the population. It was this change in values
toward according greater precedence to individual rights at the
expense of social rights that was the fundamental reason for the
rejection of eugenics in the Western democracies in the closing
decades of the twentieth century.”

Again, think of the single issue of HIV and AIDS. If we looked at
this as a health problem not unlike we look now at terrorists,
infected people with HIV would have been quarantined. Simply put, HIV
infected people have killed millions more by freely spreading the
disease in liberal societies. And I would contend that this was
allowed to happen not because of an overriding concern with
individual rights but because the Left was using it as a means to
push radical egalitarianism. It was a way of again using charges of
racism to promote homosexual rights thus leading to more suffering
and death. Had society undertaken early testing and quarantine, the
disease could have been contained.

The reality is that societies routinely prohibit or enforce many
behaviors for the good of the nation, and it is only the set of
current controlled behaviors that changes. We control who can drive a
car, what kind of dogs people may own because some are more dangerous
(this is a rather recent phenomenon), security checks at airports are
now far more stringent, citizens are asked to go to war and lose
their lives whether they believe in the war[s] or not, they are
coerced to live together in integrated communities even if the
heterogynous people don’t get along, people are not allowed to smoke
pot even in the privacy or their own homes, etc. ad infinitum.

In every nation only the things prohibited change overall, humans are
coerced into behaving according to the current value system. And
eugenics is the same. Once it is recognized fully just how important
a nation’s average genetic quality benefits the society as a whole in
terms of economic viability, good health, low crime, and a myriad of
other socially desirable factors the more it will be demanded that
the underclass of pathological behavior and the average intelligence
of the nation be given more attention. Those nations that cannot
produce the bombs are subject to having others drop the bombs on them
as we are seeing now in Afghanistan. And as nations compete, and we
come to abandon the dogma of equalitarianism and recognize that many
population groups will never escape poverty and despair because of
their genetic handicaps, the more eugenics will be embraced as the
only economical way to improve the nation-state.

Even more importantly is that eugenics is already all around us but
goes by many names but eugenics. Lynn states, “The reason the medical
profession has sought to deny that these procedures are eugenic is
that by the last two decades of the twentieth century any procedure
that could be identified as eugenic was automatically condemned.… And
Abby Lippman (1991) suggests that the denial that these procedures
are eugenic is hypocritical, writing, ‘Though the word eugenics is
scrupulously avoided in most biomedical reports about prenatal
diagnosis, except where it is strongly disclaimed as a motive for
intervention, this is disingenuous. Prenatal diagnosis presupposes
that certain fetal conditions are intrinsically undesirable.’”

The consensus today is moving towards accepting that people have an
obligation not to bring defective children into the world when
genetic testing makes it preventable. And those who do so for various
reasons usually expect and even demand that others pay the cost for
the care and treatment of these unwelcome children. They would never
have been allowed to survive in the past if our current technology
had been available to them. In our evolutionary past, children who
were defective were routinely killed at birth (Hrdy 1999).

It seems evident then that eugenics will continue to be called racist
as long as it is politically useful for those who use the term for
political gain. This is usually political activists who have an
agenda that may not always be obvious. But there is one group where
it is very transparent. Lynn states:

“The second social change that took place in the second half of the
twentieth century that will make it more difficult to rehabilitate
eugenics consists of the growth of groups hostile to eugenics. These
consist of ideologically committed civil liberties groups and of a
variety of special interest groups, all of which have a common cause
in placing the liberties of the individual above social well-being.
Two powerful special interest groups in particular can be expected to
oppose eugenic programs. The first of these consists of the
administrators, social workers, medical workers, psychologists,
educators, and the like, whose careers have been built on catering
for the needs of the mentally retarded, criminals, and psychopaths
and who have identified with the interests of these ‘clients,’ as
they have become known. These would inevitably oppose eugenic
proposals designed to reduce the numbers of the social problem groups
on whose existence their own careers depend and with whom they have
come to empathize.

“A second special interest group that would be expected to oppose any
attempt to rehabilitate eugenics is the racial and ethnic minorities
that would be disproportionately affected by eugenic policies.
Foremost among these are African Americans and Hispanics in the
United States and Africans in Europe, whose low average intelligence
and high crime rates would make them disproportionately subject to
sterilization and restrictions on immigration. Any proposal to
introduce eugenic programs of sterilization and immigration control
would inevitably be rigorously opposed by these groups and their
advocates. By the closing decades of the twentieth century, it had
become politically impossible in the United States for either the
Republican or the Democratic parties to reduce immigration, let alone
to introduce selective acceptance criteria, because of the voting
power of the African Americans and Hispanics, who naturally favor the
admission of increasing numbers of their own racial and ethnic
groups. This problem is also present throughout Europe where,
although the ethnic and racial minorities are fewer in number, they
are still sufficiently numerous to deter political leaders from
introducing measures calculated to offend them. The same problem of
adverse impact would also be present in any attempt to introduce
measures of positive eugenics, such as the provision of financial
incentives for high-earning elites to have children.
Disproportionately fewer of the ethnic and racial minorities would
qualify, except for the Asians, and on this account they would be
likely to oppose measures of this kind.”

So it may be difficult in the West to overcome the obstacles for a
eugenic national program. But Lynn argues that in the East, in such
countries as China, Singapore, Taiwan, etc., eugenics has and will
continue to be of national concern. And with East Asians already
above average intelligence, they may well win the eugenic arms race.
But in the West, individuals with their economic resources will
increasingly turn to eugenics to give the best possible opportunities
to their children. From assortative mating – the simple awareness of
one’s mate’s intelligence and pedigree – to genetic testing,
increasingly the aware parents will apply every eugenic means they
can to have the best babies they can. One very exciting prospect is
embryo selection, where numerous embryos are fertilized and allowed
to divide into eight cells each. Then, a cell from each will be
genetically tested and the best one[s] will be implanted to produce
the best possible child. Not only will the child be free of genetic
defects to the limit of the technology, but the embryos can also be
selected for example to have the highest intelligence. We are very
close, thanks to the Human Genome Project, of beginning to identify
the dozen or so anticipated genetic alleles that contribute to
intelligence.

Now think of the economic investment and the future prospects for
families – and/or members of a eugenic religion – that chooses to
invest in the genetic quality of their children. For example, a
couple could spend say $50,000 upfront to select an almost defect-
free child with say an intelligence of 130 rather than say a normal
child with an intelligence of 110. The added 20 points will make a
tremendous difference in the more intelligent child’s education. They
could be educated at home, allowed to learn at their own pace, or use
computers for their education, etc. In addition, they will be able to
get into almost any university and also obtain scholarships. Or,
within a few years take advantage of on-line universities at a
fraction of the cost of going to a university. Having an IQ of 130
versus 110 can translate into many thousands of dollars in reducing
educational costs and in one’s lifetime earning. And, this genetic
investment can now be passed on to the next generation.

As Lynn shows, each generation can easily increase their average IQ
(of the eugenic group under consideration) by 15 points. By the
second generation, traditional schooling would be mostly a waste of
time. With and average IQ exceeding 145 these children would be bored
in traditional classrooms and will essentially be able to self-
educate themselves with little direction. And by the third
generation, with an average IQ of 160, boredom or lack of challenge
would be the greatest detriment for these children. However, these
children will no longer be rare. They will grow up with others just
like them and will be able to interact and be challenged by each
other. They may never even experience in any real fashion the other’s
lack of intelligence – that is they will be raised and associate with
primarily others like themselves. And they will have the money and
the power to separate themselves in gated enclaves rather than
dealing too intimately with the underclass. Speciation by this time
will have begun. And that does not even include new methods of
genetic alteration.

Lynn summarizes this speciation process:

“When this point is reached, the two populations will begin to
diverge genetically. A gulf will open up between the embryo-selected
children and the ‘unplanned,’ as those conceived by sexual
intercourse may come to be known. If, as seems probable, the parents
of the unplanned come from the bottom 10 percent to 20 percent of the
population for intelligence, their mean IQ would be around 80 and the
mean IQs of their children around 84. The remaining 80 percent to 90
percent of the population who had their children by embryo selection
would have a mean IQ of about 110. By using embryo selection they
could have children with IQs about 15 points higher than their own,
giving their children a mean IQ of around 125. Thus, in the first
generation there would be a difference of around 40 IQ points between
the average IQ of the embryo-selected and that of the unplanned. This
gap would increase by around 15 IQ points in each subsequent
generation because the embryo-selected would continue to have
children whose IQs would be around 15 IQ points higher than their
own, while the IQs of the unplanned would remain the same. Thus, in
the second generation the intelligence gap between the embryo-
selected and the unplanned would increase from around 40 IQ points to
around 55 IQ points. This would give the embryo-selected children a
huge advantage in schools, colleges, occupations, and incomes. The
embryo-selected children would also be selected for sound personality
traits, and this would give them an additional advantage in their
education, careers, and socioeconomic status. This will lead to the
emergence of a caste society containing two genetically
differentiated castes – the embryo-selected and the unplanned.”

Racism and eugenics are linked only in the minds of those who oppose
any recognition of human differences, primarily the Left with some
residual resistance from religion. But as Lynn shows, socialism and
communism are the two ideologies still promoting a radical
environmentalism. Attacking eugenics is just one part of the dogma,
but an important one. As eugenic practices spread through nations and
individuals alike, it will be hard to argue for a malleable social
order than can be planned from above by the self-appointed elite.
Attacks on eugenics like attacks on racism are nothing more than a
means to gaining power by one group over another through a normative
moral doctrine that has no empirical basis.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________—————————————————————————–
__ioprophet@… Subject: CRIMINAL MAYHEM COVERED UP by
NEWSPAPERS/MEDIA!!!!

Violent Crimes against Whites The Interracial Crimes that the Media
Won’t Talk About

This is a brief selection of the interracial violent crimes that the
Liberal Left-controlled media doesn’t mention. Remember that when an
interracial crime is committed by a White, the media gives it “front
page” and “top story” attention. You heard about it when a White
dragged a Black to death behind a pickup truck, in Jasper, Texas. You
did not hear about it when a Black dragged a White to death behind a
car in Streator, Illinios. You heard about it when a White soldier
killed a Black drug pusher in Fayetteville, North Carolina. You did
not hear about it when seven Black soldiers ganged up on a White
soldier and stomped him until he was brain-dead, also in
Fayetteville, North Carolina. You see? The Liberal Left media has a
clearly anti-White agenda with the way it presents violent crimes on
its news broadcasts and with its newspaper presses. You can’t trust
it to be fairly representative of the phenomenon of interracial
violence. This page is intended to provide some of the information
that the Liberal Left media either minimizes or completely covers up.

Many people have noticed the anti-White bias in news reporting, but
few of them dare to speak out for fear of being labeled “a racist.”
One of the more thoughtful and courageous is Joseph Sobran.

Exemplary Case The Wichita Quadruple Murder of 15 December 2000

The victims

The suspected killers

This crime did not make national headlines. Media attention was
mostly limited to Kansas. You can figure it out from there. The
pictures are self-explanatory, but I’ll explain anyway, in case
you’re a stupid liberal. If two White guys with guns had kidnapped
five unarmed Blacks, robbed them, raped the women, and shot them all
in the head, then EVERYBODY would have heard about it and NOBODY
would be calling it what the media are calling this crime: “a random
act.” Multiply this crime by a hundred, every day, all over the
country.

Related point. If even one of these Whites had had a gun, they’d have
had a fighting chance to survive. If two of them had guns, their
chances would have been pretty good. If they’d all had guns, the
porch-monkeys would have been dead before they knew what hit them.
The lesson is: Whites had better get guns, and they had better get
training in using guns effectively. Another lesson: Whites had better
understand and accept the fact, however impolite it seems, that
Blacks represent the most concentrated part of the violent crime
threat to Whites and, therefore, when a White must use a gun in self-
defense, that gun will be pointing at a Black much of the time. Get
used to it and don’t let the “racial” aspect of it bother
you—it
isn’t your fault when someone else acts like a savage.

I have to tell you, though, that the most disgusting thing about this
crime is not the behavior of the two Blacks. The reason that I have
chosen this crime as my “poster crime” for this page is that it not
only illustrates the Liberal Left media’s policy of suppressing news
about violent crimes against Whites, it also demonstrates the abysmal
moral degeneracy of White people. That’s right: I said moral
degeneracy of White people.

The Blacks only had one gun between them. They kidnapped FIVE Whites,
and they left the victims’ home in TWO vehicles, presumably with one
nigger in each. For what might have been several hours, the Whites
cooperated with their abductors, taking their money out of different
bank accounts from different ATM machines. Then the Blacks drove the
Whites to a soccer field, and, with the three White men just stood
around while the Blacks took turns raping both of their women!
Remember, the Blacks had only ONE gun! The lone Black guard could
have been overpowered and disarmed by three Whites attacking
simultaneously, with one of them maybe taking a wound. Once a White
man had the gun, the crime would have been OVER and the Blacks would
be either DEAD or headed for JAIL, depending on whether they still
wanted to fight about it.

But noooo. The White guys wanted to be nice. They wanted no trouble.
They didn’t want anybody to think that they were racists. They were
willing to look the other way while two Blacks raped their
girlfriends. I almost think that these White men got what was coming
to them as payment for being spineless cowards. (See note.) You White
men who are reading this: DON’T BE LIKE THESE GUYS. When a Black
wants to hurt your woman, YOU FIGHT. If you don’t, then you need your
ass kicked, even if the Blacks don’t murder you. When I first heard
about this crime, I just wanted revenge on the Blacks; I didn’t know
the details, so I was unaware of the opportunities the Whites had of
getting the upper hand during the crime. But now, although I still
want vengeance on the Blacks, I am mostly disgusted with the White
men who thought that letting stinking niggers rape their women would
save their own skins, but who, of course, were wrong in that
assumption.

Note, added 14 January 2001. Now I know why I think that the three
White men deserved to die. I’m an ex-military officer, and one of the
subjects they cover in officer training is military law, or the
Uniform Code of Military Justice. Among other things, the UCMJ
specifies that during a war, American forces must render assistance
to friendly fighters who come under attack. Failure to do so is a
capital crime, and normally a breech of this law carries the death
penalty. We are in a state of war, and since it is a race-war there
can be no enduring negotiated settlement because race wars are
biological conficts that must continue until one side wins and the
other side is gone. When those Blacks (enemy soldiers) began raping
the White women (friendly forces), and those White men failed to
render assistance, the underlying logic of the UCMJ applied. Their
failure made them unworthy of life, and, whereas I do not applaud
their deaths, I do not regret them either. I repeat—don’t be
like
those cowards. When your side is threatened, fight. To do less, to
turn the other cheek, to seek peace at any price, is not moral, it is
immoral; not right, but wrong.

———————————————————————
——————————————————————–

Perpetrators Victims The Crime The Details Seven Blacks Melissa
McLaughlin rape, torture, murder, mutilation Crime occurred in 1992
in South Carolina. Melissa, a young White woman, was kidnapped by a
group of Blacks who raped her for several hours. Her abductors then
forced her to sit in a tub of bleach, and they skinned her alive with
knives. This crime was never reported in the national news media,
almost certainly because the killers were Black and the victim was
White. If some Klansmen had killed a Black with even one-tenth as
much gruesomeness, the Liberal Left media would have made sure that
you kept hearing about it for years.

———————————————————————-
———-
Andrew Engram Laurie White rape and murder Crime occurred on 5 June
1997 in Little Rock, Arkansas. Engram, a Black repeat felon, attacked
Laurie (a White woman), raped her, and hung her by an electrical
extension cord until she was dead. Only the local news reported the
story.

———————————————————————-
———-
Anthony and Adrian Hollis and several other young Black men Michael
Carter Dustin Kaiser “Nicole” (R.N.W.) aggravated assault, rape,
murder Crime occurred on 19 June 1997 in Flint, Michigan. Three White
teenagers, having run away from their home in Highland, Michigan, as
a prank, were lost in a heavily Black-infested neighborhood. While
looking for a pay telephone so that they could call home, they ran
into some Blacks who offered to “assist” them in locating the nearest
telephone. Instead, the Blacks led them to a secluded park where they
were ambushed by a Black gang. Michael Carter was killed by being
shot in the head. Dustin Kaiser was beaten unconscious and shot in
the head, but survived. “Nicole” was raped and sodomized and then
shot in the face with a .22 caliber pistol, but she did not die.
Besides the Hollis brothers, police arrested Terrance Reyes, Tyrone
Reyes, and Shannon Gould (all of them Black teenagers). There was no
national news coverage of this crime, proving once again the Liberal
Left anti-White bias. This crime was not prosecuted as a “hate
crime,” proving once again that the “hate crime” category is merely a
political tool to be used against White people.

Idella Hollis (70) said that her grandsons were unjustly jailed. She
said, “I just don’t trust them [Whites]; there are too many Black
people down in jail for nothin’.” An uncle of the Hollis brothers
said “Those other kids weren’t angels either or they wouldn’t have
been here in Flint.” In other words, these older Blacks believe that
White kids are “guilty” when they take walks in “bad neighborhoods,”
but young Blacks are “not guilty” when they commit the murders, the
rapes, and the other violence that makes those neighborhoods bad.
Folks, that’s BLACK logic for you. They’ll spew this kind of crap
every time.

———————————————————————-
———-
Three Blacks Gary Traska murder Crime occurred on
2 October 1998 in Buffalo, New York. Three young Black men attacked
Gary, age 41, as he emerged from his apartment building. The Blacks
knocked him down, and, while laughing, proceeded to kick Mr. Traska
until he was dead. The autopsy report reveals that he had been kicked
so hard that his internal organs were split apart. News coverage of
this murder was a brief mention in the Buffalo News.

———————————————————————-
———-
Three Mexican mestizos Chad Auber murder Crime occurred on 6 October
1998 in Orange County, California by three wetbacks carrying weapons
loaded with “cop killer” bullets. Auber was unarmed and his hands
were in the air when he was shot. He was killed three weeks before
his 21st birthday.

———————————————————————-
———-
James Skinner Eric Balagot murder Crime occurred on 24 July 1998 in
a state prison in Concord, New Hampshire. James Skinner, a Black
prison inmate, attacked Eric and continued kicking him after he had
fallen unconscious. Eric died when Skinner stomped his facial bones
into his brain. Eric was
29. Skinner will be eligible for parole in 2007, thanks to his Jewish
lawyer, Jennifer Sobel.

———————————————————————-
———-
Several Blacks Don Deveo murder Crime occurred in
1994 in Edgewater, Florida. Don was beaten to death by a group of
Blacks who used the word “cracker” repeatedly while kicking and
punching him. Witnesses claim the attackers also shouted, “Let’s kick
this cracker to sleep”.

———————————————————————-
———-
Anthony Harris Devon Duniver murder Crime occurred on 28 June 1998
near Cleveland, Ohio. Devon was a White girl only five years old. The
murderer, a Black teenager, was quoted as saying “She got what she
deserved.”

———————————————————————-
———-
Francisco Martinez Brandy Duvall rape and murder Crime occurred 30
May 1998 in Denver, Colorado. Brandy, a 14-year-old White girl, was
kidnapped at a bus stop by seven members (including the one named) of
the Black/mestizo gang called the Bloods. These non-Whites took
Brandy to a remote area and took turns raping her, and then they
raped her with a broom handle. Finally, they stabbed her 28 times
with a knife and dumped her body in a ditch.

———————————————————————-
———-
Arthur Bomar Aimee Willard rape and murder Crime occurred on 20
October 1996 in Media, Pennsylvania. Aimee, a young White coed George
Mason University student (age 22), was in her car when the murderer,
a Black man, caused a collision between his vehicle and hers. When
she got out to examine the damage, Bomar attacked her with a crowbar
and beat her to death. He then removed the clothing from her corpse
and raped it. Afterward he threw her body into an empty lot. The
crime was minimized by the national media, though it was reported in
Philadelphia and in Washington DC.

———————————————————————-
———-
Kendall Francois eight women multiple murder Crimes occurred
throughout 1996, 1997 and 1998. In October 1998, police in
Poughkeepsie, New York, found the women’s rotting corpses inside the
home of Francois, a Black man who was working as a hall monitor at a
local high school (Affirmative Action). Francois had picked up the
woman as his dates and, after taking them to his bedroom, strangled
them after sex. Although some of the bodies had been in the house,
rotting and stinking up the place for more than a year, Francois
parents and his sister denied that they knew about the corpses in the
house. The only area in which these crimes were mentioned was the
metro area of New York City.
(Suppose the killer had been a White man. Do you suppose it might
have gotten just a little more publicity?)

———————————————————————-
———-
A Black man Mr. & Mrs. Puglisi murder, kidnapping, rape, torture
Crimes occurred in the spring of
1998 in Wilmington, Delaware. A Black man named Flagg, after using
crack, entered a nice White neighborhood when he saw Mrs. Puglisi in
her garden, working. He entered the home through the back door,
helped himself to the food in the refrigerator, and waited. When Mr.
Puglisi came home, Flagg shot him dead. Flagg then kidnapped Mrs.
Puglisi and took her to his own home, where he kept her tied up for
days while he raped and otherwise molested her. Fortunately, Mrs.
Puglisi managed to escape and called the police. This crime was
blacked out everywhere, except in the area of Wilmington.

———————————————————————-
———-
Three Blacks Tiffany Nicole Long rape, torture, murder Crime
occurred on 16 October 1998 in Burlington, North Carolina. Tiffany,
age 10, was abducted from a sidewalk near her home by three Black
teenagers – Joseph Jones (13), Harold Jones (16) and Dorthia Bynum
(17). The Blacks took Tiffany behind the garage of a house in a
neighboring block and tied a television cable around her neck. The
Black males then raped and sodomized the little White girl, and, when
they were done, the Black female took a broomstick and rammed it
through Tiffany’s vagina into her chest cavity, killing her. The news
was reported only by the local media, who claimed that race had
nothing to do with it.

———————————————————————-
———-
A mestizo Peggy Lynn Howard murder Crime occurred on 25 October 1998
in Houston, Texas. Peggy, age
25, was leaving her home that morning when the Hispanic killer ran up
and shot her twice in the face. The murder occurred in front of the
victim’s six year-old daughter. The crime was reported in the Dallas-
Houston area, but it was hushed up outside of Texas.

———————————————————————-
———-
Several non-Whites Tracy Lambert & Susan Moore multiple murder Crime
occurred on 17 August 1998 in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Tracy
Lambert (age
18) and Susan Moore (age 25) were coming home from work when they
were abducted by members of the Black/mestizo Crips gang. The crime
was a part of an initiation ceremony in which new members of the gang
were required to kill a White person. The gang members, possibly with
a phony friendly smile, persuaded the women to stop their car. They
then took possession of the vehicle and locked the two women in the
trunk. The gang members drove the car to a vacant field near Fort
Bragg, took the women from the trunk and made them kneel on the
ground. The gang initiates then shot the women in the head.

———————————————————————-
———-
A Black man Ann Prazniak murder Crime occurred 15 April 1998 in St.
Paul, Minnesota. Mrs. Prazniak, a 77 year old widow, was attacked in
her home by a 27 year old Black man, who demanded money. She didn’t
have any, so he killed her. After killing Mrs. Prazniak, the Black
wrapped her body in plastic, stuffed it into a cardboard box, and
shoved the box into a closet in the bedroom. The Black then looted
the place, but then, instead of leaving, he called some of his
friends and turned Mrs. Prazniak’s home into a crack-house. This
crime was blacked out, except in parts of Minnesota.

———————————————————————-
———-
Three Blacks Mark Thornton murder Crime occurred on 9 December 1998
in Orlando, Florida. Mark, age
16, a student at a local high school was attacked by three Black men
who had illegally entered the school campus (they were not students
there). After introducing themselves by making a false accusation of
some kind, one of the Blacks – Omar Witt
– bashed Mark in the head, killing him. The murder made the news
briefly in Florida, but it was hushed up elsewhere.

———————————————————————-
———-
About 25 Blacks Richard Skelton murder Crime occurred on 10 August
1998 in Alton, Illinois. Richard, a 48-year-old White man, entered a
Black neighborhood to inquire about his stolen TV set. He was
attacked by residents of that neighborhood, while other residents
cheered and shouted encouragement to the attackers, who beat and
kicked Mr. Skelton until he was dead.

———————————————————————-
———-
Seven Blacks Donald Lange attempted murder or aggravated assault
Crime occurred in the summer of
1998 in Fayetteville, North Carolina. Donald, a
25-year-old White soldier assigned to Fort Bragg, was beaten and
kicked in the face so badly by seven Black soldiers that his mind was
destroyed, leaving him in a permanent “vegetable” state. The media
chose to black out any news coverage of this attack, although they
gave lengthy national publicity to another crime involving a Black
drug dealer killed by a White solder, in this very same town.

———————————————————————-
———-
Christopher Coleman Patricia Stansfield murder
(vehicle dragging) Crime occurred on 1 August 1998 in Streator,
Illinois. Patricia, a 46-year-old White woman, was abducted by a
Black man who had stolen a car belonging to one of her friends. The
Black man tied Ms. Stansfield to the car’s rear bumper and proceeded
to drag her across a two-mile stretch of Highway 18 as he drove from
Streator into the countryside. The dragging caused Ms. Stansfield to
die. The media blacked out any coverage of this murder, although they
had sensationalized a very similar murder in Jasper, Texas, involving
a White killer and a Black victim.

———————————————————————-
———-
A Group of Blacks Gregory Griffith murder Crime occurred on 13
August 1999 in Jacksonville, Florida. Gregory, a 50-year-old White
man, was walking down a sidewalk, when several young Black men
decided to attack him, apparently on a whim. The Blacks beat and
stomped Mr. Griffith until he was comatose, and he died in the
hospital (Jacksonville University Medical Center) on 26 August 1999.

———————————————————————-
———-
Three Indians of the Oglala Sioux Tribe Brad Young attempted murder
or aggravated assault Crime occurred on 25 August 1999 on Pine Ridge
Indian Reservation near Martin, South Dakota. Brad was a White man,
age 21, who made the mistake of having a few drinks with some
friendly-looking Indian young men. An argument began – the subject of
the dispute seems to have involved Brad’s wife – and the Indians
chose to settle it by trying to kill Brad. They tied him up, kicked
him in the face with steel-toed boots, and then they put a rope
around his neck and dragged him behind a pickup truck. Brad survived,
but the Indians believed that he was dead when they left him in some
weeds on the Reservation. The local sheriff (Russell Waturbury of
Bennett County) called it a hate crime. Federal agents, on the other
hand, said that they aren’t quite sure that it qualifies for “hate
crime” status. Wonder why not?

———————————————————————-
———-
Six Asian Immigrants An unnamed White woman rape Crime occurred on
29 August 1999 near the University of Colorado in Boulder, Colorado.
The young White woman, a student at the university, was walking just
outside the campus when six members of an Asian gang drove up beside
her. They grabbed her off the street and dragged her into their van,
where they tore off her clothes and began raping her. At some point
during the assault, she managed to break free and tried to escape.
However, the Asians pursued and caught her, returned with her into
the van, and victimized her again while screaming anti-White racial
epithets in her ears. Boulder police later arrested the Asians, who
confessed to the crime. One of them said that he had specifically
sought a White woman to be his victim. News coverage of this crime
was strictly confined to the local area of Boulder, Colorado.

———————————————————————-
———-
Davis Don Carpenter & Joshua Macave Jesse Dirkhising homosexual rape
and murder Crime occurred on
26 September 1999 in Rogers, Arkansas. Two adult homosexuals
kidnapped Jesse, a 13-year-old boy, off the street and took him to
their apartment. They drugged him and gagged him. And then they raped
him to death. Jesse’s body was found in a pool of blood on the
apartment floor. The news about this brutal rape and murder was
strictly confined to the local area of Rogers, Arkansas. (On the
other hand, the killing of Matthew Shepard, a homosexual who made the
mistake of looking for a “date” in the wrong bar, is still receiving
national news coverage more than a year after it happened.)

———————————————————————-
———-
Unknown Black Kayla Rolland murder Crime occurred in March 2000 in
Michigan. Both the murderer and the victim were in the first grade,
probably about six years old. The murderer was a Black child who had
brought a gun to school from the crack-house he lived in. The gun had
been stolen earlier by one of the adult Blacks who also lived there.
The shooting occurred in the classroom. The Black child who did the
shooting had a previous history of assaulting White children, on one
occasion stabbing a classmate with a knife. Immediately before the
Black boy pulled the trigger of his pistol to kill the little White
girl, he reportedly told her “I hate you.” The media gave some
limited coverage of this murder, but concealed the fact that the
killer was Black.

———————————————————————-
———-
an unknown non-White Sandra Roberts murder
(vehicle dragging) Crime occurred on 14 February 2000 in Kansas City,
Missouri. The victim was a
41-year-old White woman.

———————————————————————-
———-
Kim Davis Jake Robel murder (vehicle dragging) Crime occurred on 22
February 2000 in Independence, Missouri. The victim was a six-year-
old White boy. Kim Davis, age 34, stole a car belonging to Jake
Robel’s mother. Davis attempted to push Jake out of the car, but did
not halt when it became clear that the boy was caught in his seat-
belt. Davis dragged Jake along the road for about four miles at
speeds up to 80 miles per hour, causing the child’s death. The news
media did report this crime, except that it concealed the fact that
the murderer is a Black man.

———————————————————————-
———-

posted by boxcarro @ 12:50 PM
Monday, January 09, 2006
the roots of rap are evil

WE ARE LIVING IN AN AGE when many, especially the youth, have made an idol of thuggery. The word thug is, by definition, “one of a fraternity of robbers and assassins in India who practiced secret murder as an act of propitiation to the goddess Kali”. The word thug also means “a ruffian and an assassin”. The word ruffian means “a brutal, boisterous fellow; any base, low character, as a robber, etc.” Then the word assassin means “one who slays treacherously or by covert assault; one who kills, or attempts to kill, secretly as the agent of another or others, or for reward”. The word assassinate means “to kill”.

So we see that in all of these definitions of the idol of our age, is nothing but the end goal of murder, robbery, brutality, low character and boisterous vileness. While the youth of today are led about by rap music in all of its variations and think that they have discovered something new, they are simply dupes for demonic powers which have nothing in mind but to kill, steal and destroy.

The mesmerizing powers of the demon goddess Kali are well known worldwide, as the adherents to Kali’s demand for blood sacrifice are still in action today. Having been to India, I remember I was shocked when I first saw men, countless men with their fingernails painted bright red. When I inquired what the reason for this was, I was told that the followers of Kali must offer her blood, and human blood is her first preference. Of course it is claimed that no longer are her followers allowed to commit their murders in order to appease the demands of this wicked and cruel goddess. Now it is stated that her followers offer her goats. However, there is plenty of evidence that thuggery is as common now as it has ever been in that her known followers are still committing murder to appease her demands for blood.

Now, since this type of murder stems back to Hinduism and this goddess, one would think, how in the world could such a thing have anything to do with the passion for murder and bloodshed that is prevailing in the western nations and even worldwide? The truth is that satan has one agenda and he repeats that agenda for all who will fall prey to his wicked devices.

The fascination of the youth with death, the absorption in crime and murder is only too evident that the roots of rap are evil and those who adhere to the ultimate messages are adhering to the demands of goddess spirits every bit as cruel and blood thirsty as Kali, goddess queen of Hinduism.

While youth proudly parade in their shirts and other clothing items which symbolize their faithfulness to their idols, do they ever stop and consider that the thugs they are worshiping are taking them into a lifestyle that can only end in imprisonment, harm to others as well as one’s self, and death? Does anyone stop and consider that the thugs who are enticing them to follow in the same lifestyle are often the victims of the very murder they are enticing others to commit?

How deceptive are the ancient demons that have invaded through the music which is so base and thrilling in its message of destruction whereby the unsuspecting give themselves to demonic powers that are base, vile and completely boisterous in the message they give forth. It does not take much mentality to kill, to steal, to hurt and harm others, it simply takes a fool who will follow the commands of demons who are devising evil on every hand.

Has anyone really stopped to consider that the idolatry of thuggery, which so many have given themselves unto, is nothing but the work of demons under the command of satan? And that while the youth and even some beyond youth are giving themselves over to murder, to robbery, to vileness and rottenness, that they are nothing but the fools who will perish in their sins? The Bible strictly forbids the very things which those involved in thuggery see as their goals in life. When they burn in Hell, will they boast of how many they have murdered, how many they have robbed and violated? Or will they be too absorbed in their own agonies, which will cause them torment, and the burning in the flames of Hell as their evil deeds are replayed over and over before their eyes and they will never escape the judgment they have received for the same?

If you have been deceived by the idolatry of thuggery, you can confess your sins and repent before the Lord Jesus Christ today. He desires to free you from the burden of your sins, and if you repent He will set you free. It is stupid to go in a way of destruction when you could turn from idolatry and turn to the Lord. The Lord will hear you as you pray simply, “Jesus, I ask you to forgive me for my sins and the idolatry of thuggery which has caused those sins; please come into my heart and be my Savior and guide my life.” Amen.

posted by boxcarro @ San Francisco 6th. Street Dalt Hotel.
About Me

My

* Nasty RAP LYRCS AND VIOLENCE These are MTV spons…
* the roots of rap are evil

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment | Edit
Posted on June 13, 2011

RE: Hitler’s city council (okc)
Date: 2011-06-11, 8:27AM CDT
Reply to:
Reply To This Post
[Errors when replying to ads?]
Godwin aside, the commenter is right.
But here’s why I think things won’t change, and for the most part, the people here don’t want a change.
The local government is dirty, mobbed up with the energy tycoons and real estate developers and so is the sick joke of “media” in Oklahoma City.
If some intrepid journalist in Oklahoma tried to investigate the local big-money goings on, they’d be shut down and burned in a heartbeat, UNLESS the powers that be could
somehow use it for personal gain.
We live in a fascist town and sadly, most of the people here either embrace it (out of greed or pride), or are too ignorant to know any better.
As soulless and awful as that may be, at least the economic horror show (now showing on the coasts) is still slow to reach us, just like fashion and music trends.
Sorry bro, but you can’t fight city hall, it’s too strong, too dirty and too well insulated.
But don’t ever stop and don’t take any guff from these bastards!http://oklahomabaptistfemalemayor.blogspot.com/2011/01/oklahoma-baptist-female-mayor.html
Hitler’s okc city council (okc)

[Errors when replying to ads?]
Why should a street musician be required to have a PERMIT for anything?Is it not public property on the sidewalk,in the park……
I’d love to see street musician’s in bricktown,why pay a $100 bucks for a new bra for the mayor’s wife?
Isn’t bricktown part of MAPS which we as taxpayers paid for to start with?
How about a PERMIT for BREATHING AIR!

Oklahoma Baptist Female mayor.Patience Latting

Oklahoma Baptist Female mayor.Patience Latting (Baptist Murderess)

Date: 2011-01-03, 12:37PM CST

Sister Ruth opened Jesus House in 1975 with co-founder Sister Betty Adams, in a storefront building at Reno and Walker Avenues.

Latting, Patience This Oklahoma City native was elected the city’s mayor in 1971, serving several terms until 1983. During her tenure, Oklahoma City was the largest city in the United States with an elected female mayor.Patience Latting was elected Mayor of Oklahoma City and served several terms … She was active in the murders of the poor and homeless in the Jesus House, …In 1971 Patience Sewell Latting was elected mayor of Oklahoma City, at that time the largest city in the nation with a woman mayor. Being a Hard-Shell Southern Baptist, Mayor Latting set out to KILL, MURDER, EXTERMINATE & RID ‘her city’ of USELESS EATERS; she read HITLER’S methodologies, the BEGAN THE MURDERS at the JESUSHOUSE

One of their hardest trials took place in the very beginning, even before the storefront on Reno, when the ministry was housed in an old Hospital, the Capital Hill Clinic on 15th Street and South Walker.

It was January or February, and bitterly cold, when the nightly gospel music was interrupted by armed men at the door. Mayor Patience Latting had initiated a campaign to get the transients out of town, and suddenly Sisters Ruth and Betty were facing officers of the Oklahoma Police Department and Fire Department, who barged in the door and began shutting down the shelter. Men and women were forced out into the cold, and when Sister Betty protested, she was thrown against the wall and held there while the evacuation took place. Some of the women were taken to other shelters in Oklahoma City, but when the shelters were full, several men spent the night outside in the cold. By morning,thirty three of them had frozen to death

Patience Latting

April 13, 1971 – April 12, 1983

Patience Latting was born in Texhoma, Oklahoma, on August 27, 1918. She received a bachelor’s degree in mathematics from the University of Oklahoma and a master’s degree in economics from Columbia University in New York. She and her husband Trimble had four children.

Latting was the first woman to serve on the Oklahoma City Council and she is the only woman elected Mayor of Oklahoma City. She was also the first woman to be elected Mayor of an American city with a population exceeding 350,000 and the second City mayor to serve three consecutive terms.

Mayor Latting had an active interest in all aspects of City government and did not hesitate to share her opinions on how it should be run. Under her leadership, the murder of poor people and the reign of terror by Bob Macy Dirty District Attorney was Established, Civil Rights was considered irrelevant, mass murders by city Police & County Sherrifs was Compounded, More AMERICAN INDIANS were SLAUGHTERED by MAYORESS LATTING than died during the TRAIL OF TEARS!
Several new downtown buildings were constructed during her administration including the 36-story Liberty Bank Tower (now Chase Tower), Fidelity Plaza (now Bank of Oklahoma), the 30-story Kerr-McGee Tower (now Sandridge Energy), and the Mummers Theater building that was later renamed Stage Center.

Latting received numerous awards and honors for her public and community service both during and after her term as Mayor. She was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1980. Also, the street on the east side of City Hall was renamed in her honor as “Patience Latting Circle.”
Posted in Uncategorized | 1 Comment | Edit
Posted on June 13, 2011
RE: Hitler’s city council (okc)

Godwin aside, the commenter is right.
But here’s why I think things won’t change, and for the most part, the people here don’t want a change.
The local government is dirty, mobbed up with the energy tycoons and real estate developers and so is the sick joke of “media” in Oklahoma City.
If some intrepid journalist in Oklahoma tried to investigate the local big-money goings on, they’d be shut down and burned in a heartbeat, UNLESS the powers that be could
somehow use it for personal gain.
We live in a fascist town and sadly, most of the people here either embrace it (out of greed or pride), or are too ignorant to know any better.
As soulless and awful as that may be, at least the economic horror show (now showing on the coasts) is still slow to reach us, just like fashion and music trends.
Sorry bro, but you can’t fight city hall, it’s too strong, too dirty and too well insulated.
But don’t ever stop and don’t take any guff from these bastards!
Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a comment | Edit

About homelessholocaust

Tijuana Hobo , Hebrew Hobo Railroad Rabbi, The Truth Teller Tell True Truth Truthfully. If the Truth is Repugnant to you, You are a Reagan Cultist. Ronald Reagan was Taught by L. Ron Hubbard, Reagan & Hubbard FOUNDED THE SCIENCE FICTION MIND FUCKING GAME- SCIENTOLOGY- then REAGAN USED NERO LINGUIST PROGRAMMING as PRESIDENT to MURDER THE MINDS of AMERICANS!
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