In the NAZI HOLOCAUST: The JEW was the JEWS worst enemy!

# Austerity Programmes
Austerity Programmes (OBAMAS HEALTH CARE SYSTEM=
The austerity programmes: Usefulness before humanity

“Three-year old boy, deaf, crippled and completely idiotic. The nursing costs amounting to 8 Marks a day”, exhibition of the Reichsausschuss für Volksgesundheit (Reich Committee for National Health), March 1914

The public was continuously presented with figures on the costs for nursing and taking care of sick and disabled persons. Schools in their maths lessons even provided students with comparisons between the income of “hereditarily healthy” families and the money spent in nursing institutions.

The austerity programmes with reference to the nursing sector already started before 1933 when the worldwide depression began to spread. In 1932 the hospital allowances underwent a first cut. After 1933 and especially with the outbreak of World War II, the life conditions of the inmates of institutions deteriorated dramatically, sometimes even leading to death by starvation.

Landesverwaltungsrat Bernotat talking about austerity measures in mental hospitals, on occasion of the meeting of officials in charge for mental hospitals, on 24th September 1937 in Munich

In a speech of 1937, Landesrat Fritz Bernotat, since 1937 Referee for the Nassau district agency and in 1940 primarily responsible for the establishment of Hadamar as T-4 institution, spoke openly in favor of the principles concerning Nazi welfare policy: the costs for the “hereditarily diseased” identified by him as “asocial” individuals, should be kept as low as possible, whereas more money should be given to “healthy persons”. Liberalism as well as Christian charity were considered to the main opponents of Nazi racial policy,, with both – philosophies emphasizing the role of the individual.

Works regulations for the Kalmenhof mental hospital at Idstein i.Ts. (1933)

Efficiency audit and organizational inspection of the Merxhausen mental hospital near Kassel, 2nd September 1937

Serving as an example, the Merxhausen mental hospital in 1937 underwent an “efficiency” audit by the “Wirtschaftsberatung Deutscher Gemeinden”. According to the audit, the institution that was taking care of approximately 900 female patients at the time should accept another 200 sick people in order to be even more “efficient”. By transferring female patients from clerical institutions (Bethel near Bielefeld, Hephata near Treysa) as well as from the institution Merzig in the Saar district in the course of war preparations against France, the number of inmates in Merxhausen was raised up to 1.172 in the year 1939. As a consequence of life in such cramped and poor housing and nursing conditions, the death rate in Merxhausen rose from 6.5% (1937/38) up to 23% (1940/41) and finally to 30.6% in the years 1944/45.

Merxhausen mental hospital, 1928

The Merxhausen mental hospital was established by landgraves as a foundation for poor and sick women in the year 1533. Since 1880, Merxhausen, in its function as a Prussian Mental home and Nursing institution of the Kassel district agency, had experienced an enormous extension. Since 1935, forced sterilization of female patients was practiced in the institution on application of the Merxhausen director Theodor Malcus (1881 -1967).

Transfer of sick people into state-operated institutions of Hesse, 9th March 1929

In the republic of Hesse with its seat of government in Darmstadt, the department III (internal administration) of the state government was responsible for the administration of the institutions. The Nazi austerity policy was in tine with what had been done in previous years in the province of Hesse-Nassau, and including the transfer of foster-children of clerical and private institutions to the state-operated institutions. It was this policy that prepared the concentration of inmates of institutions in order to provide for a relatively smooth “selection” within the scope of the “euthanasia programme”.

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otal Registration
Total Registration

Card index of a hereditary file with the city of Frankfurt, 1934/35

Since 1933, the authorities introduced a systematic registration of the population under genetic aspects in order to implement Nazi racial policy. Welfare authorities of any kind provided personal data concerning their foster. children and clients to both the municipal and state authorities. The data that was filed could be used freely against those concerned for purposes of sterilization, marriage licenses, adoption, public service careers or nationalization.

In 1935/36 the Frankfurt genetic register contained 100,000 entries and approximately 170,000 files for a population of 555-857 inhabitants. In 1937/38 the genetic register contained 230.000 entries, the hereditary archives consisted of 250.000 files. Thus, half of the population of Frankfurt was already registered.

Request of the Lauterbach district office, department for hereditary health and racial hygiene, to also indicate the addresses of mentally sick etc., 19th October 1934

The groups of the population designed to become the first victims of the Nazi racial
policy underwent systematic registration: mentally sick, mentally deficient, deaf and
dumb, blind, children brought up under the social welfare stem and ,,alcoholics”.
The head of Giessen department for hereditary health and racial hygiene of the
Hessian Chamber of Physicians, Dr. med, Heinrich Wilhelm Kranz, who later became
a lecturer with the universities of Giessen and Frankfurt a.M., was one of the leading
representatives of racial hygiene during the ‘Third Reich”.

The new institute for Hereditary and Racial Research in Giessen, 1937

In 1938, the institute under the head of Dr. Wilhelm Heinrich Kranz, inaugurated in January 1936, was formally affiliated to the university of Giessen. The tasks of the institute holding three medical assistants and at least three further medical and nine non-medical posts, was not confined to research and science. The “Landesstelle für die erbbiologische Bestandsaufnahme” (regional authority for the genetic registration) and the “Eheberatungsstelle des staatlichen Gesundheitsamtes” (marital counselling bureau of the stateoperated sanitary board), responsible for the district of Upper-Hesse, were also part of the institute. In 1939, the archives included data from more than 450.000 individuals. In the marital counseling bureau, approximately 1,800 persons were registered per year.

The registration of hereditarily diseased clans by the mental hospitals, by Dr. Wilhelm Stemmler, 1936

Dr.Wilhelm Stemmler was head of the newly established Wiesbaden based “department for hereditary and racial hygiene” of the province of Hesse-Nassau. In his function and with the support of local commissioners, he organized the genetic registration in all institutions of the province. Emphasizing the importance of his duty he explained: “It someone says that funds should be used for equally necessary tasks like e.g. the support of the youth hostels and similar projects, we may also ask what youth hostels are good for if nobody doesn’t take immediate measures within the scope of hereditary and racial hygiene, in older to ensure that only hereditarily healthy individuals come into such youth hostels and not those young people that are mentally or physically crippled.” (Speech 1936)

Militarisation of Society
Prohibition of Sunday visits to the Kalmenhof mental hospital, 20th January 1941

With reference to the war situation, the directors of the institutions tried to shield the inmates from outside contacts such as visits or letters, in order to keep the crimes within the institutions secret from the public:

Budgets of the Haina, Marburg and Merxhausen mental hospitals for the fiscal year 1942

Since the outbreak of the war, all welfare institutions of both the province of Hesse-Nassau and of the Republic of Hesse provided considerable room, sometimes even the whole institution to the Wehrmacht in order to lodge German soldiers and war-prisoners. This was partly achieved by transferring and killing approximately 3.000 inmates of the Hessian institutions in the year 1941 and by concentrating those individuals that remained in the institutions.

Housing of war-prisoners with the Dynamit-A.G, Allendorf in the men’s house 5 of the Marburg mental hospital, 14th March 1941

In November 1940, the chief executive had signed a contract according to which the “Dynamit-Aktien-Gesellschaft” had obtained two buildings from the mental hospital (men’s house 5 and women’s house 5) for housing its forced laborers. The company kept the premises until March 1942. Every day, the prisoners working In the armaments industry (production of explosives) were taken to the factory in Allendorf (today Stadtallendorf). Up to 25.000 prisoners were forced to work there in three of its buildings for the German Wehrmacht, under conditions that were both inhuman and extremely hazardous for their health.

Women’s House V of the Marburg mental hospital (1931)

In 1941/42, the building housed forced female laborers of the factory “Allendorf” belonging to the “Dynamit-Aktien-Gesellschaft”. Their exact number is unknown.
This and some other similar buildings of the mental hospital established in 1876 and constructed in the “style of pavilions”, maintained a close relation with the university of Marburg and was originally designed to provide room for small groups of approximately 20 mentally sick women or men intended to live there “like a family”. The clear and fresh basements offered room for workshops.

Request of the mental hospitals to provide for more accommodation, 13th March 1944
Circular letter

The letter of state commissioner Scheilmann followed after a corresponding information by the “Reich commissioner for the mental hospitals”, that was circulated a year before, with the clear message that priority should be given to the “productive” population: “in cases of special distress we must not accept that physically sick people have to be lodged outdoor or under the most primitive condition, whereas the beds in institutions are reserved for the mentally sick depending on care..:”

Block 13 of the reserve war hospital Merxhausen, summer 1943

merxhausen block 13

Perpetrators, persons involved, witnesses and collaborators.
Policy and Adminstration

III.1map of Hessen 1933-45
Hesse; state and Gau borders before 1944

Before 1945, today’s federal state of Hesse consisted of the Prussian province of HesseNassau with the government districts of Kassel and Wiesbaden and the republic of Hesse. The state-operated welfare institutions of the province of Hesse-Nassau were administrated by the district agencies of Hesse and Nassau (until 1933 municipal selfgovernmental bodies), those of the republic of Hesse by the state governmental (department „internal administration”).The NSDAP-Gau Kurhessen included the district of the government district of Kassel only, without Hanau, Schlüchtern and Gelnhausen (until 1943 under Gau leader Weinrich), whereas the NSDAP-Gau Hesse-Nassau (under Gau leader Sprenger) also extended over the district of the republic of Hesse.

Gau leader Sprenger trooping the line of the male and female labour conscription, no date

Federal archives, Collection of photographs The Gau leader Jakob Sprenger (1884-1945) – on the left, in front of the picture – was reputed to be the most string-pulling Nazi politician throughout Hesse. Already in 1927, the “old fighter” of the Nazi movement became head of the Gau Hesse-Nassau South. He was town councilor in Frankfurt, leader of the party in the representative assembly of the province and, since 1933, also a member of the Reichstag. In 1933 the former commissioner of the Reichspost became Reich Governor of Hesse and, in 1939, Reich defense commissioner for the district of the army corps XII and the Gau Hesse-Nassau. In 1944 he was appointed president in chief of the newly founded province of Nassau.

Sprenger especially protected the chief of the Nassau institutions, Fritz Bernotat, who was an extreme defender of the Nazi policy of extermination.

Prince Philipp of Hesse, senior executive, 1937

Berlin Document Center (Federal archives) Philipp of Hesse (1896-1980), from 1933 until 1944 senior executive of the district agencies of the province of Hesse¥Nassau, architect by profession, owed most of his political carrier to his relationship with the Italian royal court. In his function as highest commissioner of the district agencies of Hesse and Nassau, he was politically responsible for the forced sterilization executed in the institutions, the “transfers” of inmates of the institutions, austerity programmes in the social welfare institutions, the establishment of “Children’s Specialty Departments” and the assignment of Hadamar as a T4 killing center. Since Italy’s liberation from fascism was declared as “treachery”, Philipp of Hesse, who was married to an Italian princess, was rejected by the government of the Reich and put into a “waiting status” in January 1944.

Landeshauptmann Wilhelm Traupel, 1937

Berlin Document Center (Federal archives) Before 1933, Wilhelm Traupel (1891-1946) was the head of the publishing house of the Nazi “Frankfurter Volksblatt”. In September 1933, he replaced Dr. Lutsch who had been democratically elected but then removed from office, and became Landeshauptmann of the district agency of Nassau. In 1936 he also was given the direction of the district agency of Hesse (where Landeshauptmann Gottfried Rabe von Pappenheim was in office) and transferred his domicile to the Ständehaus of Kassel. According to post-war testimonies, Traupel had said more than once in the years 1936137, “it is better to have a law to kill the mentally sick, because they are only ballast existences..:’. Because of domestic struggles with Gau leader Jacob Sprenger, the SS Standartenführer spent the years 1941 until 1944 with the Wehrmacht. In 1945, Traupel was removed from office under the denazification programme. He died in 1946.

Ständehaus in Kassel, about 1938

LWV archives, Collection of photographs Since I 867, the Ständehaus in Kassel, constructed in the years 1834-1836 as domicile of the Electoral Hesse Diet, was Parliament- and Administrative House of the Prussian district agency of Hesse of the province of Hesse-Nassau. The agency was responsible for road building, loan management, culturural life and especially for all local welfare institutions of a regional character.
otto schellmann

Landesrat Otto Schellmann, 1937 (on the right)

Berlin Document Center (Federal archives) From 1911, Dr. jur. Otto Schellmann (born in 1880) was working for the district agency in Kassel. In his function of Landesrat he was responsible for youth welfare services and youth welfare, the state welfare agency and the general welfare services. At the same time, the Nazi party member Schellmann (he joined the party in 1933) was the Landeshauptmann’s deputy for directing both district agencies. During the years of the war Schellmann practically carried out the business of the Landeshauptmann.

Fritz Bernotat (1937)
Berlin Document Center (Federal archives)

Throughout Hesse, Fritz (Otto-Friedrich) Bernotat (1890-1951) was the motor for the extermination of “life unworthy of fife”. He vehemently stood for the Nazi austerity programme and publicly declared to stay the inmates of the institutions.

Having joined the NSDAP as soon as in 1928, he was admitted to the SS in 1932. Bernotat quickly was promoted 1933 in the administration of the district agency in Wiesbaden, where he had begun in 1922 as simple assistant with only a first-grade. He became head of department for political affairs, for the state welfare service agency, the central administration of the institutions, the state welfare office and the headquarters of the welfare authorities for war-disabled and war victims in 1938. In this function, Bernotat was also president of different private and clerical institutions of the Nassau region, which were subject to the “Fuhrer principle” and now under the political direction of the district agency. In 1945, Bernotat managed to escape and to live undisturbed until his death in 1951 in Neuhof near Fulda where he lived under an assumed name.

Main doorway of the Landeshaus in Wiesbaden, before 1933

Archives of the town of Wiesbaden The Landeshaus in Wiesbaden, constructed in the years 1905-1907, was the domicile of the administration of the municipal agency established in 1867. In the big meeting-hall the local diet met. In 1933, the local parliament was dissolved, the democratically elected Landeshauptmann was removed from office and the whole administration was directly subject to the Oberpräsident (senior executive).

Organization chart of the local district agency of Hesse, 1939

System according to the organization chart dated 29th August 1939

In 1933, all officials of the public administration were put under racial and political assessment. Civil servants whom the Nazis disliked, were removed from office. Step by step, all executive positions were filled by Nazis. The “old fighters” enjoyed preferential treatment.

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